Danser's Monograph on Nepenthes: Nepenthes stenophylla

43. Nepenthes stenophylla MAST., Gard, Chron., 1890, 2, p. 240 (1890) ; 1892, 1, p. 402, ic. 58 (1892) ; BECK, Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 224 (1895) ; MOTT., Dict., III, p. 451 (1896) ; VEITCH, Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc., XXI, p. 237 (1897) ; MACF., in ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 74 (1908) ; in BAIL., Cycl., IV, p. 2129 (1919) ; MERR., Bibl. Enum. Born., p. 285 (1921) ; ? N. Boschiana var. Lowii HOOK. F., in D.C., Prodr., XVII, p. 98 (1873) ; BURB., Gard. Chron., 1882, 1, p. 56 (1882) ; N. fallax BECK, Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 191 (1895) ; N. Boschiana MACF., in ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 71 (1908) pro parte ; ? N. Boschiana MACF., Journ. Linn. Soc., bot., XLII, p. 126 (1914).

Icon: Gard. Chron., 1892, 1, p. 401 (1892) optima, pl. non florens ; nostra 22.

Folia mediocria petiolata, lamina lanceolata v. oblonga, nervis longitudinalibus utrinque 2-3, vagina caulem fere totum amplectente non decurrente v. caulis 1/2 amplectente in alas 2 decurrente ; ascidia rosularum ignota ; ascidia inferiora et media magna tubulosa, parte inferiore leviter ventricosa, parte superiore leviter infundibuliformia, costis 2 prominentibus, ad os rudimento alae ornatis ; peristomio operculum versus acuminato et in collum breve elongato, applanato, 2-7 mm lato, costis c. 1/3 mm distantibus, dentibus 1-2 x longioribus quam latis ; operculo suborbiculari basi profunde cordato, facie inferiore prope basin appendice obtusa lateraliter applanata ; ascidia superiora ut inferiora, sed saepe infra non ventricosa, omnino anguste infundibuliformia ; inflorescentia racemus longus pedicellis inferioribus 15 mm longis, fere omnibus 2-floris ; indumentum villosum densum badium v. denique parcius nullumve.

Stems ascending or climbing, rarely short, cylindrical, when winged somewhat angular, 6 to 11 mm thick, the internodes 2 to 6 cm long ; rosettes unknown. Leaves scattered or alternate, coriaceous, petiolate ; lamina oblong-lanceolate, 15 to 23 cm long, 2 1/2 to 3 times as long as broad, rounded or shortly cuneate at the apex, usually rounded at the base, mostly abruptly contracted into the petiole, which is 4 to 9 cm long, canaliculate, hardly

. Fig. 22. Nepenthes stenophylla ; a. upper portion of the stem of a male plant, 1/2 x (MOULTON 118) ; b. lower leaf with pitcher, 1/2 x (LOW, H.M.P.V.); c. lid seen from below, 1/2 x (HALLIER B 3390) ; d. same lid seen from aside ; e. female flower, 2 x (same plant as b) ; f. male flower, 2 x (same plant as a).

winged, sometimes keeled below, forming a sheath at the base, clasping the stem almost wholly or decurrent into 2 opposite wings 1 to 2 mm broad 1 internode long ; nervation very indistinct, the pennate nerves irregularly reticulate, the longitudinal nerves 2 or 3 on each side, originating from the base of the midrib, running parallel in the outer 1/4 part of the lamina ; tendrils robust, 2 1/2 to 3 mm thick, those of the lower leaves shorter than the lamina, without curl, those of the upper leaves up to l 1/2 times as long as the lamina, with or without curl. Pitchers of the rosettes unknown. Lower pitchers long and narrow, 16 to 25 cm high, shortly incurved from the hanging tendril, rounded at the base, on the average tubulose, somewhat ventricose in the lower part, somewhat infundibuliform in the upper part, 3 1/2 to 5 cm wide in the ventricose part, 2 1/2 to 4 cm in the middle, 3 1/2 to 6 cm at the mouth, with 2 prominent ribs over the whole length, bearing a rudiment of a fringe at the top ; mouth nearly round, oblique, incurved and acuminate towards the lid, or elongated into a neck 1/2 to 1 cm long ; peristome cylindrical to flattened, 2 to 3 mm broad in front, 4 to 7 mm towards the lid, the ribs about 1/3 mm apart, the teeth of the inner margin once to twice as long as broad ; inner surface of the pitcher glandular in the lower 1/3 part, about 5000 to 6000 glands on 1 cm2 ; lid suborbicular, 3 to 5 1/2 cm long and broad, rounded at the apex, deeply cordate at the base, the lower surface sometimes almost glandless, sometimes densely glandular with round, deepened glands, always with a laterally flattened obtuse appendage on the basal part of the midrib, rarely with a short conical prominence near the apex ; spur inserted at 5 to 15 mm from the lid, ascending from the back rib of the pitcher not branched, 5 to 15 mm long. Upper pitchers usually wholly like the lower ones, sometimes not ventricose, infundibulate from the base to the top, the inner surface glandular in the lower half. Male inflorescence a raceme, the peduncle about 10 cm long, 3 1/2 mm thick, the axis 20 to 25 cm long, the lower pedicels up to 15 mm long, almost all of them 2-flowered, furcate close to the base, without bract. Tepals oval-oblong, obtuse, about 5 mm long. Staminal column about as long as the tepals, the 1-seriate anthers included. Female inflorescence, as far as known, like the male one. Tepals oblong 5 to 6 mm long. Ovary sessile. Indumentum on the stems, the petioles, both sides of the midrib and the tendril very dense in youth, later less dense, composed of spreading, coarse, brown hairs 1/2 to 1 mm long, leaves sometimes with scattered, branched and not branched hairs above when young, very densely covered with spreading long hairs and shorter stellate hairs beneath, densely silky-ciliate at the margin ; pitchers densely covered with longer not branched and shorter branched ferrugineous hairs when young, later sparsely-hairy ; peduncle in the lower part like the stem, more densely and more velvety-hairy towards the flowers, the tepals very densely velvety-hairy outside and along the margin, the staminal column so in the basal part, more sparsely towards the anthers ; ovary very densely appressedly hairy. Colour in herbarium specimens reddish-brown in most parts, the upper surface of the leaves fallow, the inner surface of the pitcher strikingly bluish and pruinose in the non-glandular part. (Description after the specimens seen by the author.)

BORNEO. LOW, H. M. P. V. (f), type of N. fallax BECK ; Sarawak: Baram, Mt. Dulit, 900-1500 m, III 1894, HAVILAND & HOSE 3304, H. L. B. (m), H. S. M. (m) ; Mt. Murud, summit, 2667 m, 1 XII 1914, MOULTON 118, H. S. (m) ; Ulu Limbang, Batu Lawai, 29 V 1911, coll.? 24, H. S. M. (0) ; Res. Western Division: Amai Ambit, 15 IV-5 V 1894, HALLIER B 3390, H. B. (0) ; Res. Southern & Eastern Division: Bt. Batoe Ajoh, IV 1897, JAHERI (Exp. NIEUWENHUIS) 1662, H. B. (0).

The under mentioned specimens belong, without any doubt, to one and the same species. The nomenclature of this species is very confused. The original description of N. stenophylla by MASTERS is made after plants cultivated in England and is not clear without the picture after a photograph in the Gardeners' Chronicle of 1892. There is no doubt, whether the description and this picture represent the same species and there is hardly any doubt, whether this species is identical with that, to which belong the here mentioned specimens. It is astonishing, that the specimens of this species, collected in Borneo, never have been identified with the cultivated ones. MACFARLANE has alterated the description of MASTERS in such a way, that it no more agrees with the wild-growing plants. MASTERS describes the lower surface of the lid in the Latin diagnosis as follows: "medio intus basin versus processu unciformi parvo praedito", whereas in his English description we read: "with a central knob-like projection on the inner side at the base". MACFARLANE on the contrary says: "intus ad basin carina media levi obsitum", but it is not clear why he says so. For the rest the differences between the plants described by MASTERS and MACFARLANE are too slight for the opinion that these two authors have meant different species. Now the knob-like projection is one of the most striking characters of the specimens enumerated by me, the appendage of the lid being acute in related species. MACFARLANE has seen also wild specimens from Borneo ; most of them he probably enumerated under N. Boschiana, though of this not closely related species he has seen also the type specimens ; I know this with certainty of only one specimen, viz. HAVILAND & HOSE 3304. The type of N. fallax BECK is also N. stenophylla, but MACFARLANE places this name among the synonyms of N. maxima. I suppose that the N. Boschiana var. Lowii of HOOKER F. belongs here, but the description is too short for identification.

Obviously N. stenophylla is not rare in the mountains of northwestern Borneo ; the elevations recorded are between 900 and 2667 m above sea level. The polymorphy of this species shows a peculiarity. The plants of Mt. Dulit and Mt. Murud have decurrent leaves and a lid glandular over the whole lower surface, the specimens of Ulu Limbang, Amai Ambit and Bt. Batoe Ajoh have leaves with sheaths and the lower surface of the lid almost glandless. Though these are grave differences, the specimens agree so strikingly in the other characters, that it seems impossible to distinguish different species. If perhaps varieties or subspecies may be distinguished, has to be decided after further investigations.

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