Danser's Monograph on Nepenthes: Nepenthes singalana

41. Nepenthes singalana BECC., Mal., III, p. 4 & 12 t. III (1886) ; BECK, Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 185 (1895) ; MACF., in ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 47 (1908) pro parte ; non MACF., Journ. As. Soc. Beng., LXXV, p. 282 (1914).

Icon: BECC., Mal., III, t. III (1886) optima.

Folia mediocria sessilia, lamina lanceolata v. spathulato-lanceolata, raro obovato-lanceolata, nervis longitudinalibus utrinque 3-6, basi rotundata v. cordata caulis 1/2-2/3 amplectente, vagina 0 ; ascidia rosularum magnitudine mediocria, parte inferiore late infundibuliformia, os versus cylindrica v. paulum angustata, alis 2 fimbriatis ; peristomio operculum versus elevato acuminato v. in collum breve elongato, applanato, ad 3 mm lato ; costis 1/3-2/3 mm distantibus, dentibus 1-2 x longioribus quam latis, operculo suborbiculari basi cordato, facie inferiore plana ; ascidia inferiora fere ut rosularum sed paulo oblongiora ; ascidia superiora magnitudine mediocria, parte inferiore infundibuliformia, medio nonnunquam paulum ventricosa, os versus cylindrica v. paulum infundibuliformia, costis 2 prominentibus ; peristomio operculum versus acuminato elevato v. in collum breve elongato, applanato, antice 1-l 1/2 mm, postice 1 1/2-9 mm lato, costis c. 1/2-1 1/2 mm distantibus, dentibus 1/2-2 x longioribus quam latis ; operculo suborbiculari cordato, facie inferiore plano ; inflorescentia racemus parvus pedicellis inferioribus 8-15 mm longis, omnibus 1-floris ; indumentum in partibus vegetativis vix ullum, in inflorescentiis densum adpressum, in perigoniis fere 0.

Stems climbing, the part with adult leaves obtusely or sharply triangular, 3 to 7 mm thick, the internodes 3 to 10 cm ; at the base of older stems often short shoots or rosettes. Leaves of the rosettes, thin-coriaceous, sessile, lanceolate or spathulate-lanceolate, 3 to 8 cm long, 1 to 1 3/4 cm broad, acute or acuminate, more or less attenuate towards the broad base, almost wholly clasping the stem and hardly forming a sheath ; pennate nerves indistinct, running almost straightly to the margin, longitudinal ones indistinct, usually 3 on each side, originating from the leaf base ; tendril 1 to l 1/2 times as long as the leaf, curved downwards or hanging, without curl. Leaves of the short and of the climbing stems thin-coriaceous or chartaceous, scattered, sessile, lanceolate to spathulate-lanceolate, rarely obovate-oblong, 8 to 16 cm long, 1 1/2 to 3 1/2 (rarely up to 5 1/2) cm broad, obtuse to very acute, more or less attenuate towards the base, the base narrow to rather broad, rounded or slightly cordate, semiamplexicaul ; pennate nerves indistinct, running obliquely towards the margin, irregularly reticulate, longitudinal ones 3 to 6 on each side, originating from the leaf base or from the basal part of the midrib, running parallel in the outer 1/2 to 2/3 of the lamina ; tendrils 1 to 1 1/2 times as long as the leaf, those of the lower leaves without, those of the upper leaves with curl. Rosette pitchers very shortly incurved from the hanging tendril, the basal part infundibuliform widest at about 1/3 of its length, attenuate towards the mouth or cylindrical in the upper part, 7 to 8 cm high, 2 to 2 1/2 cm wide in the widest part, 1 1/2 to l 3/4 cm below the mouth, with 2 fimbriate wings over the whole length, the wings 2 to 3 mm broad, the fringe segments 3 to 5 mm long, 1 to 2 mm apart ; mouth oblique, incurved and acuminate towards the lid, rarely elongated into a short neck ; peristome flattened, about 1 mm broad in front, up to 3 mm near the lid, the ribs 1/3 to 2/3 mm apart, the teeth of the inner margin once to twice as long as broad ; inner surface of the pitcher glandular in the lower half, the glands overarched or not, making the outer surface minutely bullate ; lid orbicular, slightly cordate at the base, without appendages, with many deepened rimmed glands on the lower surface towards the middle, almost glandless towards the margin ; spur inserted close to the lid, 2 to 3 mm long, flattened, truncate or divided into few short branches. Pitchers of the lower leaves only slightly differing from those of the rosettes, somewhat more slender, more or less approaching those of the upper leaves. Upper pitchers gradually or abruptly originating from the hanging end of the tendril, the curve usually 5 to 10 mm, rarely up to 30 mm wide, the lower half infundibuliform, mostly ventricose in the middle, cylindrical or slightly narrowed towards the mouth, rarely wholly campanulate-infundibuliform, 7 to 20 cm high, 2 to 5 cm wide in the ventricose part, 1 1/2 to 4 1/2 cm below the mouth, with 2 prominent ribs over the whole length ; mouth almost horizontal in front, strongly incurved and acuminate towards the lid or elongated into a short neck ; peristome flattened, 1 to 1 1/2 mm broad in front, 1/2 to 9 mm near the lid, the ribs 1 to 1 1/2 mm apart, the teeth of the inner margin 1/2 to 2 times as long as broad ; inner surface of the pitcher glandular in the lower 2/5 or 1/2, with overarched or not-overarched glands, which make the outer surface minutely bullate, about 150 glands on 1 cm2 ; lid suborbicular, cordate at the base, 2 to 4 cm long and broad, without appendages, over the whole surface with round deepened and rimmed glands which are larger towards the middle, smaller towards the margin ; spur 2 to 3 mm long, slightly flattened, inserted close to the lid, not branched. Male inflorescence a seemingly lateral raceme, the peduncle 4 to 6 cm long, 1 to 1 1/2 mm thick, the axis 7 to 11 cm long, not attenuate ; lower pedicels 8 to 15 long, the upper ones shorter, all of them 1-flowered with a filiform bract. Tepals oblong, 3 to 4 mm long. Staminal column about 3 mm long, the 1-seriate anthers included. Female inflorescence almost like the male one, the peduncle often longer, up to 15 cm long, the pedicels without bract. Tepals lanceolate. Ovary sessile. Fruit 15 to 30 mm long, the valves 3 to 5 mm broad, not strongly attenuate towards both ends. Seeds filiform, 8 to 12 mm long, the nucleus strongly transversely wrinkled. Indumentum sparse on the stems only some ferrugineous tomentum near the axils ; leaves almost glabrous ; inflorescences appressedly long-hairy in the lower part, shorter- and more densely-hairy towards the pedicels, the tepals only short-tomentose at the margin, glabrous for the rest ; staminal column glabrous ; ovary very densely silky-hairy ; fruit with deepened points, sparsely appressedly hairy or glabrous. Colour of the pitchers light-green, violet-spotted or not, the peristome reddish, the lid green or reddish ; perigone violet-brown inside. Colour in herbarium specimens fallow- or dark-brown, the pitchers often with distinct dark spots towards the mouth and on the lid, the inner surface violet or bluish, pruinose.

SUMATRA. H. L. B. 908,140-499 (m) ; G. Malintang, 2200 m, 1 VIII 1918, BÜNNEMEIJER 4179, H. B. (m), vern. name: koeran koeran ; G. Singgalang, VI-VII 1879, BECCARI, Piante sumatrane 187, H. L. B. (0) ; 1883, BOERLAGE, H. L. B. 908,155-784 (0) ; 2600 m, 28 V 1918, BÜNNEMEIJER 6292 & 6293, H. B. (0) ; G. Kerintji, 2600 m, 4 V 1920, BÜNNEMEIJER 9997, H. B. (0), vern. name: kalendjong baroek ; 2200 m, 7 V 1920, BÜNNEMEIJER 10270 & 10271 bis, H. B. (f), vern. name: kandjong baroek.

N. singalana has been based by BECCARI on plants from G. Singgalang and later it has been found again on this mountain and on others between 2200 and 2600 m above sea level. MACFARLANE erroneously records it from the Malay Peninsula ; this is caused by confusion with N. gracillima. There have been found intermediates between N. singalana on one side and N. pectinata and N. sanguinea on the other. See under N. pectinata x singalana and N. sanguinea x singalana.

N. singalana varies little. The number BÜNNEMEIJER 2629 is very coarse and has very broad, almost obovate leaves. Such aberrations, however, occur in many species.

The specific name singalana is etymologically wrong, meaning "from Singala", i.e. from Ceylon ; from Mt. Singgalang the adjective sing(g)alangana may be derived.

Some vernacular names have been recorded ; they are all Minangkabau names: koeran koeran, kalendjong baroek, kandjong baroek ; the first name means coal-pans ; the word baroek in the other names means monkey, Minangkabau for the Malay beroe.

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