40. Nepenthes sanguinea LINDL., Gard. Chron., 1849, p. 580, ic. 2 (1849) (non vidi) ; GRIFF., Post. pap., IV, p. 348 (1854) ; HOOK. F., in D. C. Prodr., XXII, p. 100 (1873) ; PLANCH., Fl., serr. XXII, p. 166, t. 2343-2344 (1877) ; BECC., Mal., III, p. 4 & 8 (1886) ; HOOK. F., Fl. Br. Ind., V, p. 70 (1886) ; WUNSCHM., in ENGL. & PRANTL, Nat. Pflanzenfam., III, 2. p. 260 (1891) ; BECK, Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 185 (1895) ; MOTT., Dict, III, p. 451 (1896) ; BOERL., Handl., III., 1, p. 54 (1900) ; MACF., in ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 45 (1908) ; ? RIDL., Journ. Fed. Mal. St. Mus., IV, p. 59 (1909) ; MACF., Journ. As. Soc. Beng., LXXV, p. 283 (1914) ; in BAIL., Cycl., IV, p. 2126 (1914) ; MERR., Bibl. Enum. Born., p. 285 (1921) ; RIDL., Fl., III, p. 23 (1924) ; non BURB., Gard. Chron., 1881, 1, p. 56 (1881), quid ?; ? N. pumila GRIFF., Post., pap., IV, p. 349 (1854).
Icones: Fl. serr., XXII, t. 2343-2344 (1877), asc. 1 inf., ic. colorata, mala ; nostra 20.
Folia mediocria sessilia, lamina spathulato-lanceolata, raro obovato-oblonga, nervis longitudinalibus utrinque 3-5, basi cordata v. rotundata caulis 1/2-2/3 amplectente, vagina 0 ; ascidia rosularum mediocria, parte inferiore anguste ovata, os versus cylindrica, alis 2 fimbriatis ; peristomio operculum versus acuminato elevato ad 2 mm, lato, costis c. 1/3 mm distantibus, dentibus 0 ; operculo ovato-cordato, facie inferiore plana v. vix carinata ; ascidia inferiora magna, parte inferiore anguste ovata, os versus subcylindrica, alis 2 fimbriatis ; peristomio operculum versus acuminato elevato v. vix in collum elongato, 3-20 mm lato, costis c. 1/3-1 mm distantibus, dentibus 0 ; operculo ovato-cordato, facie inferiore plana v. vix carinata ; ascidia superiora mediocria v. magna, e parte inferiore omnino tubulosa v. ad os anguste infundibuliformia, medio nonnunquam paulum ventricosa, costis 2 prominentibus ; peristomio operculum versus acuminato elongato v. in collum breve elongato, 2-12 mm lato, costis c. l/2-2/3 mm distantibus, dentibus 0 ; operculo ovato-cordato, facie inferiore plano ; inflorescentia racemus magnus pedicellis inferioribus 20-25 mm longis, fere omnibus 2-floris ; indumentum in caulibus et foliis vix ullum, in ascidiis iuventute densissimum denique densum v. parcius, velutino-tomentosum, in inflorescentiis densi adpresse pilosum v. tomentosum.
Stems climbing, the part with adult leaves irregularly obtusely, rarely
sharply triangular, 4 to 9 mm thick ; at the base of older plants often short
shoots and rosettes. Leaves of the rosettes thin coriaceous, sessile ;
lamina lanceolate-spathulate, up to 10 cm long, up to 3 1/2 cm broad, obtuse or
acute, cordate at the base, clasping the stem almost wholly with rounded lobes
; pennate nerves indistinct, running almost straightly towards the margin,
irregularly reticulate, the longitudinal nerves 3 to 5 on each side in the
larger leaves, originating from the leaf base, running parallel in the outer
half of the lamina ; tendrils 1/4 to 1 x as long as the leaf, curved downwards.
Leaves of short shoots thin-coriaceous to coriaceous, scattered,
sessile, larger than the leaves of the climbing stems, lanceolate-spathulate,
12 to 35 cm long, 3 to 6 cm broad, obtuse to acute, clasping the stem almost
wholly with the broad base ; pennate nerves indistinct, running almost
straightly towards the margin, irregularly reticulate, the longitudinal nerves
distinct, usually 3 to 5, mostly 4, on each side, originating from the base of
the leaf, running parallel in the outer 2/5 to 1/2 of the lamina ; tendrils 1
to 1 1/2 times as long as the leaf, curved downwards or hanging, without curl.
Leaves of the climbing stems coriaceous, scattered, sessile ; lamina
obovate-oblong to lanceolate-spathulate, 9 to 20 cm long, 2 1/2 to 5 cm broad,
obtuse to acute, clasping the stem for 1/2 to 2/3 with the broad, rounded or
slightly cordate base ; pennate nerves indistinct, obliquely or almost
straightly running towards the margin, irregularly reticulate, longitudinal
nerves usually 3 or 4 on each side, often indistinct,
. Fig. 20. Nepenthes sanguinea ; a. upper portion of the stem of a female plant, 1/2 x (BURKILL & HOLTTUM 8630) ; b. lower leaf and pitcher, 1/2 x (ANDERSON 63) ; c. upper pitcher, 1/2 x (FOX 182) ; d. fruiting raceme, 1/2 x (FOX 184).
originating from the leaf base, running parallel in the outer half of the lamina ; tendrils 1 to l 1/2 times as long as the leaf, with curl. Pitchers of the rosettes small or medium-sized, very shortly incurved from the hanging tendril, ovate or narrowly ovate in the lower part, subcylindrical in the upper part, up to 10 cm high, up to 3 cm wide in the lower part, up to 2 cm in the upper part, with 2 fringed wings over the whole length, the wings up to 4 mm broad, the fringe segments up to 4 mm long, 1 to 3 mm apart ; mouth oblique, elevated and acuminate towards the lid ; peristome flattened, up to 1 1/2 mm broad in front, up to 2 mm on the sides, the ribs 1/3 mm apart, often indistinct, the interior margin entire ; inner surface of the pitcher glandular in the ventricose part with overarched glands ; lid orbicular-ovate to ovate, up to 2 1/2 cm long, up to 2 1/4 cm broad, the inferior surface without appendages, with rounded deepened and rimmed glands towards the basal part of the midrib, glandless towards the margin ; spur not branched or divided into several (up to 5) branches, 3 to 5 mm long. Pitchers of the short shoots (like some of the rosette pitchers and some of the climbing stems) much larger than the normal rosette pitchers, very shortly incurved from the hanging tendril, ovate or narrowly ovate in the lower 1/2 or 2/5 part, subcylindrical or somewhat narrowed in the upper part, 14 to 30 cm high, 4 1/2 to 9 cm wide in the lower part, 3 to 7 cm in the upper part, with 2 fringed wings over the whole length, the wings 2 to 7 mm broad, the fringe segments 3 to 10 mm long, 1 to 7 mm apart, sometimes lacking in the lower part ; mouth horizontal or oblique in front, elevated and acuminate towards the lid, sometimes elongated into a short neck ; peristome flattened or expanded, 2 to 10 mm broad in front, 3 to 20 mm broad on the sides, the ribs 1/3 to 1 mm apart, the interior margin entire ; inner surface of the pitcher shining and glandular in the ventricose part, with overarched glands, about 150 to 400 glands on 1 cm2 ; lid ovate or orbicular-ovate, 3 to 8 cm long, 2 3/4 to 6 mm broad, rounded at the apex, rounded or slightly cordate at the base, the lower surface without appendages, rarely slightly keeled in the basal part of the midrib, towards the latter with many round or elliptical deepened and rimmed glands, glandless near the margin ; spur 5 to 20 mm long, inserted at 1 to 3 mm from the lid, not branched when long, 2- or 3-fid when short. Pitchers of the upper leaves forming a transition series between the lower and the typical uppermost ones. Uppermost pitchers gradually or abruptly originating from the hanging end of the tendril, with a curve 20 to 45 mm wide, infundibuliform in the base and tubulose towards the mouth or wholly infundibuliform, mostly narrow, rarely wide, often somewhat ventricose above the infundibuliform lower part and somewhat contracted above the ventricose part, 15 to 24 cm high, 3 to 7 1/2 cm wide under the mouth, with 2 prominent ribs over the whole length ; mouth horizontal in front, elevated and acuminate towards the lid, or elongated into a short neck ; peristome flattened, 1 to 5 mm broad in front, 2 to 12 mm broad on the sides, the ribs 1/3 to 2/3 mm apart, the inner margin entire ; inner surface glandular in the lower half or rarely up to 2/3 of its height, about 150 to 400 glands on 1 cm2, lid broadly ovate-cordate, 4 1/2 to 8 cm long, 3 to 6 cm broad, rounded at the apex, usually slightly cordate, rarely rounded at the base, without appendages, the lower surface wholly glandular with deepened and rimmed glands especially towards the basal part of the midrib ; spur not branched, inserted at about 3 mm from the lid, 10 to 18 mm long, acute. Male inflorescence a coarse raceme, the peduncle 8 to 21 cm long, 3 to 6 mm thick at the top, somewhat thicker at the base, cylindrical or somewhat angular, the axis 18 to 35 cm long, angular or grooved, attenuate ; pedicels almost all of them 2-flowered, the lower ones 20 to 25 mm long, filiform, with a filiform bract above the base, the upper ones gradually shorter, but not much, without bract. Tepals 3 to 4 mm long, elliptic to oblong, obtuse. Staminal column about 4 mm long, the 1-seriate anthers included. Female inflorescence in the main like the male one, the peduncle 20 to 26 cm long, the axis 14 to 30 cm long, the pedicels mostly without bract. Tepals oblong to lanceolate ; ovary short-pedicelled. Fruit slender, attenuate towards both ends, especially towards the almost pedicelled base, 17 to 30 mm long, the valves narrowly lanceolate, 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 mm broad. Seeds filiform, 12 to 15 mm long, the nucleus strongly transversely wrinkled. Indumentum on the stem almost none from the beginning ; leaves shortly spreadingly haired on the midrib below when young, later glabrous ; tendrils densely covered with spreading branched and not-branched hairs, later sparsely hairy or partly glabrous ; pitchers very densely and rather long-hairy when young, later sparsely hairy, but rather densely so near the mouth ; inflorescences very densely adpressedly stellate-tomentose when young, later less densely hairy, at least the peduncle often almost glabrous, the indumentum of the pedicels persistent, the tepals long-hairy in the middle, short-hairy near the margin ; staminal column very densely stellate-hairy at the base, less densely towards the anthers ; ovary very densely and rather long-hairy ; fruit rather densely or sparsely haired. Colour of herbarium specimens pitchers dull-dark-brown to blackish, the inferior pitchers red-brown, mostly with distinct spots, the upper pitchers not reddish, with distinct dark spots, especially near the mouth ; inner surface of the pitcher bluish or reddish, pruinose. (Description after all the plants seen by the author.)
MALAY PENINSULA. 1881, KUNSTLER 2022 H. S. (f) ; Perak: G. Bubu (ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 46) ; Larut, 1380 m, IX 1882, KING's coll. 3316, H. S. (0) ; G. Hijau, WRAY, H. S. (f) ; III 1892, RIDLEY H. S. (0) ; 14 III 1911, ANDERSON 62, H. S. (0) ; 1260 m, XII 1887, CURTIS 1314, H. S. (0) ; 1800 m, IX 1889, CURTIS 2044, H. S. (0) ; Taiping Hills, II 1904, RIDLEY, H. S. (0) ; 28 VIII 1899, DERRY, H. S. (0) ; 16 X 1899, DERRY, H. S. (f) ; Bujang Malaka, IX 1898, RIDLEY 9790, H. S. (m) ; 1200 m, VIII 1898, CURTISS 3362, H. S. (f) ; Maxwell Hills, 1320 m, X 1899, Fox 182 & 183, H. S. (f) ; B. Bireh, 1320 m, X 1899, FOX 184, H. S. (0) ; Pahang: G. Tahan, Wray's Camp, VII 1911, RIDLEY 16174, H. S. (0) ; 1200-1650 m, 12 VI 1922, HANIFF & NUR 8310, H. S. (0), H. B. (0) ; Kluang Terbang, 1900 m, BARNES 10912, H. S. (0) ; Telom, XI 1908, RIDLEY, H. S. (0) ; Fraser Hill, upon the Selangor border, 1200-1300 m, 16-30 IX 1922, BURKILL & HOLTTUM 8630, H. S. (m, f) ; upper Tras valley, under Fraser Hill, 1050 m, 27 IX 1922, BURKILL 7878, H. S. (0) ; Cameron's Highlands, below Forster's Hill, 1440 m, 19 XI 1925, HENDERSON, 17841, H. B. (0) ; Robinson Falls, 1440 m, 18 XI 1925, HENDERSON 17752, H. B. (0) ; Selangor: Bt. Fraser, VII 1919, HOSE 65, H. S. (m) ; Sempang, IV 1911, RIDLEY, H. S. (0) ; Bt. Hitam, V 1896, RIDLEY, H. S. (0) ; 1350 m, I 1891, KELSALL, H. S. (0) ; Malacca: MOXON, H. B. (0) ; G. Ledang, summit and towards the summit (GRIFF., Post. pap. IV, p. 348) ; Mt. Ophir, XII 1883, H. S. (0) ; 900 m, V 1890, DERRY 631, H. S. (0) ; 1050 m, V 1890, DERRY 644, H. S. (m) ; G. Mering, 600 m, VI 1892, RIDLEY 3174, H. S. (m) ; Johore: Mt. Ophir, summit, 1395 m, VI 1892, RIDLEY, H. S. (m) ; IV 1881, HULLETT 873, H. S. (0).
N. sanguinea, though very aberrant in its typical form, is not sharply distinguished from some related species, viz. N. Macfarlanei, N. gracillima and N. singalana. See under N. Macfarlanei x sanguinea, N. sanguinea x singalana, and the general chapters.
N. sanguinea is limited to the mountains of the Malay Peninsula ; the height on which it is found lies, as far as data are extant, between 900 and 1800 m. About the possible occurrence in Sumatra see N. sanguinea X singalana.
The variability seems not to be large. In the herbarium N. sanguinea seems to be more variable than it really is, by the imperfect state of the materials, on one sheet being found quite another part of the plant than on another. Plants, which differ from typical N. sanguinea only by the hairy lower surface of the lid I have still referred to this species, not to the transition forms towards N. Macfarlanei.
? Nepenthes sanguinea x singalana - N. Junghuhnii RIDL., Journ. Fed. Mal. St. Mus., VIII, IV, p. 79 (1917).
SUMATRA. Batak regions, 1840-1842, JUNGHUHN, H. L. B. 908,227-648 (m), H. B. 908,323-334 (m) ; KOORDERS, Plantae Junghuhnianae Ineditae 274 ; on the label: N. Junghuhnii n. sp., written by MACFARLANE.
N. Junghuhnii is based upon plants, collected by JUNGHUHN in Sumatra, named as such by MACFARLANE in the Kew Herbarium and seen by RIDLEY, and with which the latter author identified specimens from G. Kerintji. I have not seen any of these plants and therefore I am not quite certain about them ; however, In H. B. there are other plants, collected by JUNGHUHN in Sumatra and named N. Junghuhnii by MACFARLANE, and it seems evident, that these plants may be identical with those in the Kew Herbarium. About the specimens from G. Kerintji, which, according to RIDLEY, are "undoubtedly the same species", I dare, of course, not say the same. However, the two numbers in H. B. named by MACFARLANE seem to be not wholly identical. The first of the above mentioned plants is a form, certainly intermediate between N. sanguinea and N. singalana. The coarse stems and the large leaves are those of N. sanguinea, the pitchers are smaller than usually are those of N. sanguinea, their shape approaches that of the pitchers of N. singalana and the inflorescences are quite like those of the latter species. The second plant mentioned above is perhaps a piece of an identical plant, though it shows other characters. It is a fragment of the lower portion of a climbing stem ; this stem and its leaves are like those of the first mentioned plant, but the pitchers differ from those of N. sanguinea only by the toothed interior margin of the peristome. When the latter character had been absent, I should not have hesitated to record N. sanguinea as occurring in Sumatra ; also the proveniance of the two mentioned plants from probably the same habitat has kept me from doing this. Of course it is possible, that both plants of JUNGHUHN represent a new species, but since the material at hand shows only characters intermediate between two species already known and between many related species intermediate forms have been found, I prefer to distinguish also these plants as such. It is very improbable that it is a hybrid, since pure N. sanguinea has not been found in Sumatra, and from the region where JUNGHUHN collected his plants N. singalana too has not been recorded. As is obvious from a letter written by MACFARLANE and extant in the Leiden Herbarium this author intended to make a description of N. Junghuhnii for KOORDERS to be published in his Plantae Junghuhnianae lneditae, but apparently it had not come to that. The publication of RIDLEY, not written in Latin, is invalid from a nomenclatorial point of view,