Danser's Monograph on Nepenthes: Nepenthes Reinwardtiana

39. Nepenthes Reinwardtiana MIQ., PI. Jungh., p. 168 (1852) ; Fl., I, 1, p. 1075 (1858) ; suppl., p. 151 & 366 (1860) ; Journ. Bot. Néerl., I, p. 277 (1861) ; TEYSM. & BINN., Cat., p. 99 (1866) ; MIQ., Ill., p. 4 & 8, t. IV (1870) ; HOOK. F., in D. C., Prodr., XVII, p. 103 (1873) ; BECC., Mal., III, p. 5 & 14 (1886) ; HOOK. F., Fl. Br. Ind., V, p. 70 (1886) ; WUNSCHM., in ENGL. & PRANTL, Nat. Pflanzenfam., III, 2, p. 260 (1891) ; BECK, Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 189 (1895) ; BOERL., Handl., III, 1, p. 54 (1900) ; HEMSL., Gard. Chron., 1905, 1, p. 260 (1905) ; MACF., in ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 50 (1908) ; Journ. As. Soc. Beng., LXXV, p. 285 (1914) ; HEYNE, Nutt. pl., ed. 1, II, p. 189 (1916) ; MERR, Bibl. enum. Born., p. 284 (1921) ; RIDL., Kew Bull., 1926, p 78 (1926) ; HEYNE, Nutt. Pl., ed. 2, 1, p. 686 (1927) ; END., Midd. O. Born. Exp. 1925, p. 232 (1927) ; N. Reinwardtii HOOK. F., Transact. Linn. Soc., XXII, p. 422 (1859) ; ? RIDL., Agr. Bull. Straits & Mal. St., V, p. 200 (1906).

Icon: MIQ., Ill., t. IV (1870), optima.

Folia mediocria sessilia, lamina lanceolata v. lineari-lanceolata, nervis longitudinalibus utrinque c. 3, basi caulis 2/3 amplectente in alas 2 breves v. longas decurrente ; ascidia rosularum ignota ; ascidia inferiora magnitudine mediocria, parte inferiore ovata, medio angustata, os versus infundibuliformia, alis 2 fimbriatis, v. efimbriatis ; peristomio operculum versus acuto, cylindrico, ad 1 mm lato, costis 0 v. indistinctis, dentibus 0 ; operculo suborbiculari v. elliptico v. subovato, facie inferiore plano ; ascidia superiora parte inferiore anguste ovata, medio angustata, os versus infundibuliformia, costis 2 prominentibus ; peristomio operculum versus acuto, cylindrico, c. 1-2 mm lato, costis 0 v. indistinctis 1/3-1/4 mm distantibus, dentibus 0 ; operculo rotundato-elliptico v. ovato, facie inferiore plano ; inflorescentia racemus longus pedicellis inferioribus c. 12-25 mm longis fere omnibus 2-floris ; indumentum in partibus iuvenilibus et in inflorescentiis parcum velutino-tomentosum, ceterum 0.

Stems climbing, up to 20 m high, the part with adult leaves obtusely to sharply triangular, or winged along 2 angles, usually 3 to 5 mm thick, the internodes usually 2 to 10 cm long ; at the base of older plants often short shoots, but real rosettes unknown. Leaves of the short shoots scattered, sessile ; lamina lanceolate, linear-lanceolate or more spathulate, 6 to 12 cm long, 1 to 2 cm broad, acute, gradually attenuate towards the base, clasping 2/3 to 4/5 of the stem with a broad, slightly conate base, decurrent in 2 very differently long wings ; pennate nerves very irregularly reticulate, running obliquely towards the margin, the longitudinal nerves usually 3 on each side, originating from the midrib on very different heights, running parallel in the outer 1/3 part of the lamina ; tendrils about as long as the leaf, without curl. Leaves of the climbing stems scattered, sessile, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 6 to 20 cm long, usually 2 to 3, rarely 1 to 4 cm broad, acute to subobtuse, rather broad at the base, which is obliquely amplexicaul and decurrent into 2 very differently long wings, sometimes as long as 1 internode and attenuate downwards ; pennate nerves very irregularly reticulate, running obliquely towards the margin, longitudinal nerves mostly 2 to 4 on each side, originating from the basal part of the midrib, often difficultly distinguishable from the pennate nerves in the basal part, running parallel in the outer 1/3 part of the lamina ; tendrils 1 to l 1/2 times as long as the leaves, the upper ones always with curl, the lower ones often without such. Lower pitchers shortly incurved from the hanging tendril, mostly 6 to 15 cm high, obliquely ovate in the lower part, 2 to 5 1/2 cm wide, narrowed towards the middle, widened again towards the mouth, with 2 wings fringed or not, broadest in the ventricose part of the pitcher, the fringe segments short, 2 to 3 mm apart, mouth up to 4 cm wide, oblique, nearly round, acute towards the lid ; peristome cylindrical, up to 1 mm broad, not ribbed, the interior margin entire ; inner surface of the pitcher with slightly overarched glands in the lower 2/5 part, glandless for the rest ; lid orbicular-elliptical, the lower surface without appendages, with many small, not deepened glands, spur short, not branched, 2 to 4 mm long. Pitchers of the upper leaves only slightly different from the lower ones, more widely incurved from the hanging end of the tendril, the curve up to 20 mm wide, the lower part little or not ventricose, less narrowed in the middle, with 2 prominent ribs over the whole length, the mouth quite like that of the lower pitchers, the peristome 1 to 2 1/2 mm broad, usually not, sometimes indistinctly ribbed, the ribs 1/3 to 1/4 mm apart, the interior margin entire ; inner surface of the pitcher with almost non-overarched glands in the lower 2/5 part, about 400 to 1300 glands on 1 cm2 ; the non-glandular part pruinose, often with 2 round, non-pruinose spots on the backside ; lid orbicular-elliptical or somewhat ovate, without appendages, with small rimmed but not deepened glands on the lower surface ; spur not branched, 1 to 4 mm long. Male inflorescence a raceme, the peduncle 5 to 10 cm long, 2 to 4 mm thick over the whole length, the axis usually 15 to 25 cm long, attenuate only in the uppermost part ; pedicels without bract, almost all of them 2-flowered, filiform, furcate near base, 12 to 25 mm long, the uppermost ones often shorter. Tepals orbicular-elliptical or oblong, obtuse, 3 to 4 mm long. Staminal column slender, about 4 mm long, the 1-seriate anthers included. Female inflorescence in the main like the male one, on the average shorter. Tepals lanceolate, acute. Ovary sessile. Fruit very slender, 30 to 40 mm long, the valves l l/2 to 3 mm broad, very gradually attenuate towards both ends. Seeds filiform, the nucleus transversely wrinkled. Indumentum appressed and stellate in the young pitchers, the other vegetative parts glabrous, the inflorescences velvety-tomentose by dense appressed stellate hairs, especially towards the flowers and on the perigone, the ovary very densely hairy, the fruit sparsely hairy. Colour in the living state green in all parts, the pitchers also light-green but often with a red hue, never spotted, the flower yellow-green to dark-brown inside. Colour of herbarium specimens fallow-dun in different hues. (Description after all the plants seen by the author.)

MALAY PENINSULA. Pahang: (ENGL., Pflanzenr. IV, 111, p. 51) ; Singapore: (D.C, Prodr., XVII, p. 103 ; ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 51).

SUMATRA. H. L. B. 908,155-530 & -531 (0), vern. name: daon bakoeng rimba ; JUNGHUHN, H. L. B. 908,15-1105 (0) ; H. A. R. T. 000269 (m) ; Gov. Eastcoast: Lau-deboek-deboek, near the sulphur lake, 1000 m, VII 1926, JOCHEMS, H. D. P. S. 3319, H. B. (0) ; Res. Tapiannoeli: Batak regions, 'Pagger Oetang", 600 m, XI 1840 or 1841, JUNGHUHN, H. A. R. T. 000274 (m, f), type of N. Reinwardtiana MIQ.; 'Simmur Woasos", 900-1200 m, 1840-1842, JUNGHUHN, H. A. R. T. 000273 (f), authentic specim. of N. Reinwardtiana MIQ.; Res. Westcoast: Padang Uplands, VIII-XI 1883, BURCK, H. B. (0) ; Pajakoemboeh, 5-7 I 1856, TEYSMANN 539, H. B. (m, f), H. A. R. T. (0) ; Fort de Kock, Karbouwengat, 800 m, 25 I 1920, DOCTERS VAN LEEUWEN 3966, H. B. (m, f), H. L. B. (m) ; III 1917, JACOBSON 2805, H. B. (m) ; Sidjoengdjoeng, 30 XII 1855-2 I 1856, TEYSMANN 540, H. B. (0), H. A. R. T. (0). vern. name: akar taboeng taboeng, authentic specim. of N. Reinwardtiana MIQ.; P. Pini, on the coast, 2 XI 1896, RAAP 545, H. B. (0) ; 5 I 1897, RAAP 622, H. B. (0) ; P. Sibéroet, 10 IX 1924, IBOET 53, H. B. (0) ; KLOSSI 12288, H. S. (f) ; Res. Riau & Dependencies: Anambas Islands. P. Diemadja, 20 m, 15 V 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER, 5772, H. B. (0) ; P. Lingga, Resoen, 60 m, 18 VII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER, 6790, H. B. (0), vern. name: gendi kré ; G. Tanda, 100 m, 21 VII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER, 6885, H. B. (0) ; H. L. B. (0) ; G. Daik, 50 m, 12 VII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER, 6603 & 6604, H. B. (0) ; H. L. B. (0) ; 6607, 6610, 6611, H. B. (0), vern. name: gendi kré ; Res. Bangka: P. Bangka, TEYSMANN 3510, H. A. R. T. (f), vern. name: ketakong kidjang, authentic specim. of N. Reinwardtiana MIQ.; KOBUS, H. B. (f), vern. name: ketakong roesak, ketoengoet ; 8 VIII 1886, BERKHOUT 33, H. B. (m), vern. name: ketagong ringa ; 1917, BÜNNEMEIJER, 1782a, H. B. (m), H. L. B. (m) ; Sg. Liat, Bt. Tampang, 70 m, 23 X 1917, BÜNNEMEIJER, 1724, H. B. (f) ; Neh Oerit, 60 m, 26 X 1917, BÜNNEMEIJER 1761, H. B. (m), vern. name: ketakon ; Toboali distr., Kepo, 60 m, 9 XII 1917, BÜNNEMEIJER 2320, H. B. (m), also on alcohol ; Res. Belitoeng: Manggar, 17 III 1907, HAM, 23, H. B. (0) ; vern. name: katoejang ; 26 V 1926, BURGER 6, H. B. (0).

BORNEO. Sarawak: Labuan (D.C., Prodr., XVII, p. 103) ; Mt. Mooloo, 1200 m Transact. Linn. Soc., XXII, p. 422) ; Ulu Limbang, Batoe Lawai, 29 V 1911, H. S. M. (0) ; Lingga, Sg. Bei, 1893, HULLETT 5716, H. S. (0) ; Res. Western Division: G. Kelam, 30 1-13 II 1894, HALLIER B 2299, H. B. (m) ; Res. Southern & Eastern Division: Oeloe Tjihan, 11 XII 1898, AMDJAH (Exp. NIEUWENHUIS) 321, H. B. (m) ; near Benoea Toca, 20 m, 21 VI 1925, ENDERT 1579, H. B. (m, f) ; near Mt. Kemoel, 1200 m, 26 IX 1925, ENDERT 3573, H. B. (m) ; P. Belang, Balikpapan Bay, 4 IV 1910, RUTTEN 2, H. A. R. T. (f) ; Balikpapan Bay, over against P. Belang, 20 m, 6 IV 1910, RUTTEN 11, H. A. R. T. (m).

MOLUCCAS. Tidore, in cacumine montis, REINWARDT, H. L. B. 908,155-1107.

This Nepenthes is on first sight difficultly, but after further study easily distinguishable from related species. Nearest related is N. tobaica, but even against this it seems to be sharply limited.

The distribution all over the Sunda-shelf is remarkable, as this is observed in several other species. Therefore the occurrence in the Moluccas is very improbable. Besides N. Reinwardtiana also N. Maxima and N. gymnamphora have been told to occur in Tidore, but from these 3 species N. maxima only has been found there afterwards. Probably the label of REINWARDT refers only to this and the other 2 species have been mounted later on the same sheet.

The elevation on which is found N. Reinwardtiana varies between 0 and 1200 m, but most of the habitats are situated below 100 m ; this, in connection with the same peculiarity in some other species, may perhaps elucidate the limitation to the Sunda-shelf (cf. general characters). The habitat varies from open to wooded ; the soil seems to be always sterile ; from Eastern Borneo the occurrence on salt grounds has been recorded, but this needs further affirmation.

N. Reinwardtiana varies very little. No varieties have been described.

BÜNNEMEIJER records from Bangka, that the leaves are applied against skin-ache: "the old skin disappears soon and a new one appears." The mode of application, however, is not clear. RIDLEY tells (Agr. Bull. Str. & Fed. Mal. St., V. p. 200) that a decoct is used as an astringent ; it seems probable that another species less rare in the Malay Peninsula, is meant by him. Yet it is remarkable, that the uses recorded both by RIDLEY and BÜNNEMEIJER already have been recorded by POIRET for N. madagascariensis (LAM. Encycl. Méth., bot., V, p. 460): "La racine de cette plante passe pour astringente, & ses feuilles pour rafraichissantes & humectantes. On en retire une liqueur destillée que l'on emploie intérieurement dans les fièvres ardentes, & extérieurement dans les inflammations de la peau, les érisipèles, &c."

Vernacular names. In the Padang uplands (Minangkabau): akar taboeng taboeng (climber with pots) ; in P. Lingga (Malay): gendi keré (monkey's jugs) ; in Bangka (Malay): ketakong kidjang, ketakong roesa(k), ketakong ring(g)a, ketakong, ketoengoet, takoejang ; for the names composed with ketakong see N. gracilis and N. ampullaria. MIQUEL records also: ketoepang kidjeng, but does not say whence ; DE CLERCQ gives: akar perioek kera, ketakong babi, perioek beroek, perioek kera, but, as he tells, this species is used as tying material, it is doubtful, whether he means this species. The same may be said of the name perioek kera bitina, recorded by RIDLEY for the Malay Peninsula.

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