37. Nepenthes Rafflesiana JACK, Comp. Bot. Mag., I, p. 270 (1835) (non vidi) ; KORTH., Verh., p. 35 (1839) ; HOOK. PAT., Bot. Mag., t. 4285 (1847) (cum cit. descr. JACK) ; LEM., Fl. serr., III, t. 213-214 (1847) ; KORTH., Flora, VI, p. 578 (1848) ; MORR., Belg. Hort., II, p. 234, t. 38, ic. 2 (1852) ; BL., Mus., II, p. 9 (1852) ; DE VR., Tuinbouwfl., I, p. 203 (1855) ; TEYSM. & BINN., Cat. ined., p. 81 (1855) ; MIQ., Fl., I, 1, p. 1070 (1858) ; HOOK. F., Transact. Linn. Soc., XXII, p. 422 (1859) ; MIQ., Fl., suppl., p. 150 & 365 (1860) ; Journ. Bot. Néerl., I, p. 277 (1861) ; TEYSM. & BINN., Cat., p. 99 (1866) ; V. HOUTTE, Fl. serr., XVI, t. 1698 (1867) ; LEM., Ill. Hort., XVI, misc., p. 44 (1869) ; MIQ., Ill., p. 6 (1870) ; HOOK. F., in D.C., Prodr., XVII, p. 96 (1873) excl. syn. N. Hookeriana ; Nature, X, p. 371 (1874) ; PLANCH., Fl. d. serr., XXII, p. 161, t. 2343-2344 (1877) ; BURB., Gard. Chron., 1882, 1, p. 56 (1882) ; MAST., Gard. Chron., 1882, 2, p. 424, ic. 69 & 70 (1882) ; BECC., Mal., III, p. 3, 8, 10, 11 (1866) excl. var. Hookeriana ; DIXON, Gard. Chron., 1888, 1, p. 170 (1888) ; HOOK. F., Fl. Br. Ind., V, p. 69 (1890) ; WUNSCHM., in ENGL. & PRANTL, Nat. Pflanzenfam., III, 2, p. 260 (1891) ; BECK, Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 146, ic. 5 (1895) excl. var. Hookeriana & excelsiore ; MOTT., Dict., III, p. 451 (1896) ; BOERL.; Handl., III, 1, p. 54 (1900) ; MACF., in ENGL., Pflanzenr, IV, 111, p. 61 (1908) ; Journ. As. Soc. Beng., LXXV, p. 286 (1914) ; Journ. Linn. Soc., bot., XLII, p. 126 (1914) ; HEYNE, Nutt. pl., ed. 1, II, p. 189 (1916) ; RIDL., Journ. Fed. Mal. St. Mus., VIII, IV, p. 79 (1917) ; MACF., in BAIL., Cycl., IV, p. 2128, ic. 2462, 5 & 2464 (1919) ; MERR., Bibl. En. Born., p. 284 (1921) ; Enum. Phil., II, p. 216 (1923) ; RIDL., Fl., III, p. 24 (1924) ; DANS., Trop. Nat., XVI, p. 202, ic. 5 (1927) ; non HABERL., Bot. Tropenr., p. 227 (1893) quae est N. gymnamphora ; N. Hookeriana LOW, Saraw., p. 68 (1848) (cit. Gard. Chron., 1881, 2, p. 812), non LINDL., Gard. Chron., 1848, p. 87 (1848) &c.; N. Hemsleyana MACF., in ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 61 (1908) ; MERR., Bibl. Enum. Born., p. 284 (1921).
Icones: Bot. Mag., t. 4285 (1847) optima, colorata ; Fl. serr., III, t. 213-214 (1847) eadem ; DE VRIESE, Tuinbouwfl., I, t. 9 & 10 (1855) bona, colorata ; Alb. d. Nat., 1863, p. 294 & 298, mediocris ; Fl. serr., XVI, t. 1698 (1867) bona, colorata ; Fl. serr., XXII, t. 2343-2344 (1877) asc. 1, inf., bona, colorata ; Gard. Chron., 1882, 2, p. 425 & 429 (1882) optima, asc. inf. tantum ; BECC., Mal., III, t. I, ic. 2 (1888) optima ; Gard. Chron., 1892, 2. p. 553 (1892) optima ; Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 143, ic. 5 (1895) ; BAIL., Cycl., IV, ic. 2462, 5 & 2564 (1919) optima, asc. inf. tantum ; WETTST., Handb., p. 246, t. 428, ic. 3 & 4 (1924) optima, asc. inferius ; Trop. Nat., XVI, p. 202 (1927) asc. 2.
Folia mediocria petiolata, lamina oblonga v. lanceolata, nervis longitudinalibus utrinque 4-5, vagina semiamplexicauli ; ascidia rosularum desunt ; ascidia inferiora e basi rotundata ovato-coniformia, alis 2 fimbriatis ; peristomio in collum longum elongato, applanato, ad 10 mm lato, costis 1/2-1 mm distantibus, dentibus 3-6 x longioribus quam latis ; operculo ovato-cordato, facie inferiore exappendiculato ; ascidia superiora infundibuliformia, costis 2 prominentibus; peristomio in collum longum elongato, applanato, 3-15 mm lato, costis dentibusque 1/2-1 mm distantibus, dentibus 3-6 x longioribus quam latis, operculo ovato-cordato, facie inferiore exappendiculato ; inflorescentia racemus pedicellis inferioribus 10-15 mm longis, omnibus 1-floris ; indumentum parcum, plerumque tomentosum tenuissimum album, passim etiam villoso-tomentosum ferrugineum.
Stems climbing, often up to 4 m, rarely up to 15 m high, the part with adult leaves 4 to 8 mm thick ; short shoots often extant, real rosettes unknown. Leaves of the short shoots scattered, coriaceous, petiolate ; lamina lanceolate-spathulate, 8 to 30 cm long, 1 1/2 to 5 cm broad, rounded to acute at the apex, gradually or abruptly attenuate at the base, petiole canaliculate, narrowly winged, 2 to 10 cm long, forming a laterally flattened sheath, clasping the stem 1/2 or 2/3 part ; pennate nerves numerous, running obliquely towards the margin, irregularly reticulate, longitudinal nerves 3 to 5, originating from the petiole, running parallel in the outer 2/3 of the lamina ; tendrils as long as or somewhat longer than the lamina, curved downwards or hanging, without curl. Leaves of the climbing stems scattered, coriaceous, petiolate ; lamina oblong to lanceolate, rarely broader usually 12 to 30 cm long, 3 to 10 cm broad, mostly obtuse and very shortly acuminate, rarely acute or gradually attenuate at the apex, gradually or abruptly attenuate into the petiole which is as long as to half as long as the lamina, canaliculate, narrowly winged, forming a laterally flattened, short, semiamplexicaul sheath, pennate nerves numerous, often indistinct, running obliquely or more straightly towards the margin, the longitudinal nerves 4 or 5 on each side, originating from the base of the midrib, running parallel in the outer 2/3 part of the lamina ; tendrils usually longer than the lamina, the pitcher-bearing ones always with curl. Lower pitchers rounded at the base, conical to the top, 5 to 25 cm high, 3 to 10 cm wide in the lower part, with 2 fringed wings over the whole length, the wings up to 35 mm broad, the fringe segments filiform, up to 15 mm long, 1/2 to 3 mm apart ; mouth very oblique, elongated towards the lid into a neck 2 to 5 cm long ; peristome flattened, elongated at the inner side into a perpendicular lamina up to 15 mm broad ; ribs 1/2 to 1 mm apart ; teeth of the interior margin 3 to 6 times as long as broad ; inner surface of the pitcher glandular up to 2/3 of its height with minute overarched glands, about 1800 to 2500 on 1 cm2 ; lid ovate, cordate, vaulted, with the strongest vaulting near the base, with 2 keels formed by 2 principal nerves fold down, rounded, truncate or emarginate at the apex, in the latter case the 2 principal nerves ending each in a tip, cordate at the base, the upper surface sometimes with few filiform appendages, the lower surface glandless in the middle, with numerous rather large, deepened and rimmed glands towards the margin, without appendages ; spur not branched, up to 20 mm long, inserted close to the lid. Pitchers of the climbing stems gradually originating from the hanging end of the tendril, incurved with a curve 20 to 50 mm wide, infundibulate, 10 to 40 cm high, 3 to 6 1/2 cm wide at the top, with 2 prominent ribs ; mouth very oblique, elongated into a neck up to 5 cm long ; peristome flattened, involute at the outer margin, expanded into a perpendicular lamina at the inner margin, the ribs 1/2 to 1 mm apart, the teeth 3 to 6 times as long as broad ; inner surface of the pitcher wholly glandular, with overarched glands, 1500 to 2500 on 1 cm2 ; lid ovate, about 5 to 10 cm long, 3 1/2 to 8 cm broad, cordate, vaulted, the strongest vaulting near the base, usually keeled by a fold along the 2 distinct principal nerves, rounded, truncate or emarginate at the apex, in the latter case the 2 principal nerves ending each in one tip ; lower surface glandless in the middle part, with many rather large deepened and rimmed glands towards the margin, without appendages ; spur not branched, mostly 10 to 20 mm long, inserted close to the lid. Male inflorescence a cylindrical raceme, the peduncle 6 to 18 cm long, the axis 10 to 50 cm long, 3 to 5 mm thick at the base, attenuate, the pedicels 1-flowered, without bract, the lower ones 10 to 25 mm long, rarely 2-flowered, the upper ones little shorter. Tepals oblong to elliptic, 4 to 10 mm long. Staminal column about as long as the tepals ; anthers in 1 to 2 whorls. Female inflorescence in the main like the male one, shorter on the average. Tepals like those of the male flowers. Ovary strongly attenuate at the base, almost pedicelled, fruit 25 to 50 mm long, very differently shaped, more attenuate to the base than to the tip, the valves lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, 4 to 8 mm broad. Seeds filiform, 10 to 20 mm long, the nucleus and the adjacent part of the appendages delicately and shortly prickled. Indumentum composed of 2 kinds of hairs in young parts, a thin but dense tomentum of intricate delicate hairs and longer spreading hairs, the latter soon deciduous, the tomentum persistent, mostly sparse in adult parts and forming scattered stellate hairs, in the inflorescences and especially in the perigones persistent, forming a mouldy indumentum, often very dense on the tepals outside and on the ovary and there seemingly forming a farinose chalky covering ; indumentum of the pitchers like that of the stems, but less dense and more woolly, mostly brownish ; upper surface of the leaves and staminal column wholly glabrous. Colour of the pitchers: with green underground red or dark-violet spotted in very different degrees, especially the lower pitchers dark-coloured, often blackish-violet with green spots rarely almost green with some purple blotches ; indumentum gray or whitish in all parts. Colour of herbarium specimens fallow- to yellowish-brown in different hues, the pitchers often distinctly spotted with red, especially towards the top and on the lid. (Description after all the specimens, seen by the author.)
MALAY PENINSULA. Perak: Maxwell's hill (RIDL., Fl., III, p. 24) ; Pahang: Jambi, V 1890, RIDLEY 1372, H. S. (0) ; Kwantan, IX 1889, DURNFORD, H. S. (0) ; Pekan, 3 V 1890, RIDLEY 1068, H. S. (0) ; between Pekan and Ayer Tawar, 30 XI 1924, BURKILL & HANIFF 17261, H. S. (0) ; Malacca: MOXON, H. B. (0) ; G. Mering & Ledang, VI 1892, RIDLEY, H. S. (m, f) ; Merlimau (RIDL., Fl., III, p. 24) ; Mt. Ophir, 1871, MAINGAY 1323, H. L. B. (0) ; VI 1892, RIDLEY, H. S. (0) ; Johore: Mt. Ophir, summit, 1395 m, 1888, HULLETT 874, H. S. (0) ; upper Benut Valley, 30 X 1924, BURKILL & HANIFF 16362, H. S. (m, f) ; G. Panti, 450 m, 12 IV 1925, HOLTTUM 15102, H. S. (0) ; summit, 900 m, XII 1892, RIDLEY, H. S. (0) ; G. Belumut, 900 m, 26 V 1923, HOLTTUM 10731, H. S. (0) ; G. Pulai, 1892, H. S. (m) ; Mt. St. George, XII 1908, RIDLEY, H. S. (0) ; Singapore: JACK, H.S, (0) ; LOBB, H. S. (0) ; WALLICH, H. L. B. 906,155-1118 (0) ; Tanglin, X 1883, HULLETT, H. S. (0) ; Jurong Road, 30 IX 1915, NUR, H. S. (0) ; Jurong Reserve, 10 I 1889, H. S. (m, f) ; Changi, II 1889, H. S. (f) ; GOODENOUGH 4693, H. S. (f) ; Ulu Berih, 7 VI 1914, BURKILL 275, H. S. (0) ; Bukit Timah, 4 I 1890, GOODENOUGH, H. S. (f) ; Tempinis Road, 15 X 1917, BAKER, H. S. (m) ; 26 XI 1889, GOODENOUGH 4692, H. S. (m) ; south of Holland Road, 17 V 1914, BURKILL 291, H. S. (m) ; Bt. Mandi, 8 II 1890, H. S. (f) ; Kranji, 10 I 1890, H. S. (m, f).
SUMATRA. Res. Westcoast: lndrapoera, 1935, KORTHALS, H. L. B. 908,155-1110 & -1114 (0) ; 22 VI 1895, WIJERS 7, H. B. (0) ; Barong Bharu, west side of the Barisan Range, 1200 m (RIDL., Journ. Fed. Mal. St. Mus., VIII, IV, p. 79) ; Res. Riau & Dependencies: P. Los, 20 m, 21 VI 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 6392, H. B. (0) ; P. Karimon, H. S. (0) ; XII 1894, Fox, H. S. (0) ; G. Djanten, 150 m, 7 IX 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 7872, H. B. (0) ; P. Lingga, G. Daik, 50 m, 12 VII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER, 6606, H. B. (0), H. L. B. (0), vern. name: gendi kré ; 80 m, 12 VII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER, 6612, H. B. (0), vern. name: gendi kré ; 300-500 m, 16 VII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER, 6719 & 6720, H. B. (0) ; S. Semarong, 5-10 m, 18 VIII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER, 7554 & 7561, H. B. (0), vern. name: akar mojong ; G. Tanda, 100-850 m, 21 VII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 6880 & 6882, H. B. (0) ; 700 m, 12 VII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 6884, H. B. (0), H. L. B. (0) ; P. Singkèp, Kp. Raja, 10 m, 1 VIII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 7097, H. B. (0), 7098, H. B. (m), vern. name: priok kré ; Res. Bangka: TEYSMANN, H. L. B. 908,155-1112 (0) ; P. Bangka, TEYSMANN 3513, H. A. R. T. (0), vern. name: ketakong-babi ; TEYSMANN 3515, H. A. R. T. (0) ; 3518, H. A. R. T. (f), vern. name: ketakong mendjang ; 8 VIII 1886, BERKHOUT 45, H. B. (m), vern. name: ketakong manjang ; Djeboes, TEYSMANN, H. B. (0), vern. name: ketakong mendjang ; Belinjoe, Koeala Sg. Pedjem, 2 m, 30 VI 1926, BURGER 19, H. B. (f) ; BURGER 21, H. B. (0) ; Res. Belitoeng: (BECC., Mal., III, p. 3).
BORNEO. British North Borneo: Balambangan Island ; Port Myburg ; Sipitang (Journ. Linn. Soc., bot., XLII, p. 126) ; Mt. Kinabalu, 1050 m (Transact. Linn. Soc., XXII, p. 422) ; BURBIDGE, 1877, H. S. (m) ; LOBB, H. S. (0) ; Sarawak: Labuan, 1858, JAGOR, H. Berl. (m) ; 1893, EVERETT 5568, H. S. (m) ; 2-3 m, 27 XI 1902, MERRILL, H. S. (0) ; Brunei (BECC., Mal., III, p. 3) ; Brooketon, VII 1905, HEWITT, H. S. M. (f) ; Kuching, 15 XI 1892, HAVILAND, H. S. (m) ; G. Santubong, VIII 1912, ANDERSON 236, H. S. (0) ; G. Matang, 3rd mile Rock Road, 14 II 1892, HAVILAND (?), H. S. M. (0) ; Res. Western Division: TEYSMANN, H. B. (0) ; TEYSMANN 10960, H. B. (0) ; 1882, TEUSCHER, H. B. (m) ; Paloh, II 1927, BIANCHI 36, H. B. (0) ; Monterado (BECC., Mal., III, p. 3) ; Sintang, TEYSMANN 10961, H. B. (f), 10968, H. B. (0) 10965 (f) partly ; foot of G. Kenapai, 25 XII 1893 HALLIER B 1596 H. B. (f) ; Oeloe Kenepai, 20 XII 1893, HALLIER B 1457, 1458, 1459, H. B. (0) ; G. Kelam, 30 I & 1 II 1894, HALLIER B 2289, H. B. (m) ; 1-15 II 1894, HALLIER B 2378, H. B. (0) ; Sg. Sekedau, 21 I 1894, HALLIER B 2142, H. B. (0) ; Res. Southern & Eastern Division: Samenggaris, XII 1912, AMDJAH 1074 & 1078, H. B. (0) ; between Boentoek & Djihi, 21 VIII 1918, HUBERT WINKLER 3275, H. L. B. (0) ; 3276, H. B. (0), H.LB. (0).
Since MACFARLANE has pointed out, that N. Hookeriana is quite different from N. Rafflesiana and that the former is an intermediate between the latter and N. ampullaria, the synonymy of N. Rafflesiana shows no more great difficulties. In the separation of N. Hemsleyana I can not follow MACFARLANE ; I have seen specimens that more or less agree with the original description. especially HALLIER B 1459, but I can find no reason to consider them as a distinct species.
The distribution of N. Rafflesiana is restricted to the Sunda-shelf, though it must be remarked, that in Sumatra it is very rare and in the Malay Peninsula it seems to be common only in the southern part. The elevation, on which it is found, varies between 2 and 1395 m ; this gives this species a fair chance to dispersion. It grows on very different habitats, but often on open and swampy grounds.
RIDLEY (Agr. Bull. Straits 6 Fed. Mal. St, new ser, 1, p. 245) tells that N. Rafflesiana is, together with N. ampullaria, the plant, the stem of which gives a tying material used in the same way as rattan ; elsewhere I found not mentioned this and therefore I suppose, that this use is not a general one and that perhaps this record is wrong.
N. Rafflesiana varies little. Yet there have been described some varieties. The var. nivea HOOK. F. (D.C., Prodr., XVII, p. 97) distinguishes itself by the more abundant white indumentum ; the var. glaberrima (l.c.) is the other extreme. The var. insignis MAST. (Gard. Chron., 1862, 2, p. 524, ic. 69) is one of the colour varieties as may be distinguished in many species, but which have no taxonomic value ; likewise the var. nigropurpurea, the other distinctive characters of which are of no value too. The var. Hookeriana BECC. (Mal., III, p. 3 & 11) is N. Hookeriana, the var. minor BECC. (l.c.) is based upon specimens which are smaller in all parts, occurring, however, in many species. The var. ambigua BECK (Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 147) is only opposite to the var. typica of the same author by the erroneous description of the latter, as in the normal plant the different pitchers are glandular inside for a smaller or greater part. This error made it possible, that BECK placed N. Rafflesiana in his group of the Apruinosae.
Vernacular names. In the Lingga Archipelago (Malay): Periok kerè, gendi kerè, akar mojong ; cf. N. ampullaria and N. gracilis. In Bangka (Malay): ketakong manjang, ketakong mendjang, ketakong babi, for which see N. gracilis ; the name ketakong mendjangan is probably wrong, the Bangki name medjang corresponds with the Javanese mendjangan (both = deer), but may not be replaced by it. The name recorded by MIQUEL: ketakong bali, too, is erroneous, the right form being, probably, ketakong babi. See for the names with ketakong under N. gracilis.