16. Nepenthes gymnamphora NEES - N. melamphora BL., Cat., p. 111 (1823) nomen nudum ; Mus., II, p. 8, t. I (1852) ; MIQ., Fl., I, 1, p. 1072 (1858) ; TEYSM. & BINN., Cat., p. 99 (1866) ; HOOK. F., Transact. Linn. Soc., XXII, p. 423 (1859) pro parte ; MIQ., Journ. Bot. Néerl., I, p. 277 (1861) ; Ill., p. 7 (1870) ; HOOK. F., in D.C. Prodr., XVII, p. 101 (1873) ; BECC., Mal., III, p. 5 & 13 (1886) pro parte ?; BECK, Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 186 (1895) ; MASS., Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg., XXXIV, p. 242-279 (1895) ; BOERL., Handl., III, 1, p. 54 (1900) ; CLAUTRIAU, Mém. Acad. Roy. Belg., LIX, p. 27 (1900;) HEINR., Ann. Jard. Bot. Buit., XX, p. 277-296 (1906) ; MACF., in ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111 p. 56 (1908) ; KOORD., Gedenkb. Jungh., p. 167 (1910) ; KOORD.-SCHUM., Syst. Verz., I, fam. 111 (1911) ; KOORD., Exkursionsfl., II, p. 269, ic. 55 (1912) ; NEGER, Handwörterb. Naturwiss., V, p. 526 (1914) ; MERR., Bibl. enum. Born., p. 283 (1921) ; KOORD., Fl. Tjib., II, p. 88 (1923) ; V. FAB., Kraterpfl. Jav., p. 7 &c. (1927) ; non FERN.-VILL., Noviss. app., p. 173 (1880) ; N. gymnamphora NEES, Ann. Sc. Nat., sér. 1, III, p. 366, t. 19 & 20, 1 (1824) ; BL., Enum., I, p. 85 (1827) ; KORTH., Verh., p. 32, t. 3 & t. 4, ic. 55-70 (1839) ; HASSK., Cat., p. 94 (1844) ; ZOLL. & MOR., Syst. Verz., p. 70 (1846) ; KORTH., Flora, VI, p. 578 (1848) ; MIQ., Pl. Jungh., p. 169 (1852) ; TEYSM. & BINN., Cat. ined., p. 81 (1855) ; LEM., Ill. Hort., XVI, misc., p. 44 (1869) ; BOERL., Handl. III, 1, p. 54 (1900) ; DANS., Trop. Nat., XVI, p. 198 (1927) ; N. Rafflesiana HABERL., Bot. Tropenr., p. 227 (1893) ; non JACK, Comp. Bot. Mag., 1, p. 270 (1835) &c.
lcones: Ann. Sc. Nat., sér. 1, III, t. 19 & 20, 1 (1824) bonae ; KORTH., Verh., t. 3 & t. 4, ic. 55-70 (1839) optimae, t. 3 colorata ; BL., Mus., II, t. I (1852), optima ; Ann. Jard. Bot. Buit., XX, t. XXIV-XXVI (1906) ; KOORD., Exkursionsfl., II, ic. 55 (1912), idem ac. tab. BLUMEI ; Trop. Nat., XVl, p. 199 et tab. colorata.
Folia mediocria sessilia, lamina lanceolata, nervis longitudinalibus utrinque 3-6, basi angusta semiamplexicauli, vagina 0 ; ascidia rosularum magnitudine mediocria, ovato-conica v. ellipsoidea, alis 2 fimbriatis ; peristomio operculum versus elevato acuminato, applanato, ad 10 mm lato, costis 1/4-1 mm distantibus, dentibus 3-6 x longioribus quam latis ; operculo ovato-cordato, facie inferiore plano ; ascidia inferiora inter rosularum et superiora intermedia ; ascidia superiora magnitudine mediocria, parte inferiore infundibuliformia saepe paulum ventricosa, parte superiore tubulosa, costis 2 prominentibus rarissime fimbriatis ; peristomio operculum versus elevato acuminato, applanato, antice 1-3 mm, postice ad 10 mm lato, costis 1/2-3/4 mm distantibus, dentibus c. 2 x longioribus quam latis ; operculo ovato-cordato, facie inferiore plano ; inflorescentia racemus magnus pedicellis inferioribus 10-18 mm longis, 2-floris, superioribus paulo brevioribus 2- v. 1- floris ; indumentum in partibus vegetativis iuvenilibus plerumque villosum v. velutinum, deciduum v. permanens, in inflorescentiis adpressum e pilis stellatis compositum.
Stems climbing, often up to 15 m, rarely up to 40 m high, if high, then woody in the lower part, the part with adult leaves obtusely angular or cylindrical, 4 to 8 mm thick, the internodes 2 to 10 cm long ; at the base of older stems often real rosettes, elongated rosettes or short shoots. Leaves of rosettes small, lanceolate, up to 5 cm long, acute, slightly attenuate towards the base, dilated at the very base and clasping the stem for more than the half, sometimes almost forming a sheath ; nervation indistinct, the smallest leaves only penninervous, the larger ones also with a beginning of longitudinal nerves ; tendril about as long as the pitcher. Leaves of the elongated rosettes and of the short shoots intermediate between those of the rosettes and those of the normal leaves. Leaves of the climbing stems thin-coriaceous, scattered, sessile, the lamina lanceolate, 10 to 35 cm long, 2 to 6 cm broad, mostly acute, sometimes obtuse, gradually but strongly attenuate at the base, sometimes almost petioled, semiamplexicaul with a rounded base, rarely slightly decurrent ; pennate nerves running obliquely towards the margin, irregularly reticulate, longitudinal ones 3 to 6 on each side, originating from the basal part of the midrib, running parallel in the outer 2/3 to 4/5 of the lamina ; tendrils 1 to 1 1/2 times as long as the leaf, those of the lower leaves without, those of the upper leaves with curl. Pitchers of the rosettes shortly incurved from the hanging tendril, rounded at the base, ovate, conical towards the mouth or more ellipsoidal, the well developed ones 8 to 12 cm high, 3 to 4 cm wide, with 2 fringed wings over the whole length, the wings 3 to 6 mm broad, the fringed segments filiform, 3 to 6 mm long, 1 to 2 mm apart ; mouth very oblique, elevated towards the lid, not elongated into a neck ; peristome flattened, sometimes almost expanded, usually 4 to 10 mm broad, the ribs 1/4 to 1 mm apart, the teeth of the interior margin 3 to 6 times as long as broad ; interior surface of the pitcher with overarched glands in the lower 1/2 to 2/3 part, from the bottom to the top about 200 to 1200 glands on 1 cm2 ; lid ovate, obtuse, slightly cordate, mostly 2 1/2 to 4 cm long, 2 to 3 1/2 cm broad, the lower surface without appendage, the midrib at most obtusely carinate in the basal part, the whole lower surface with large round rimmed and deepened glands, more densely glandular near the basal part of the midrib ; spur inserted close to the lid, flattened, rarely branched, usually 3 to 8 mm long. Pitchers of the elongated rosettes and of the short shoots intermediate between those of the rosettes and those of the climbing stems. Pitchers of the climbing stems gradually or abruptly originating from the hanging end of the tendril, incurved with a curve 5 to 20 mm wide, narrowly infundibulate in the lower part, usually tubulose in the upper 3/5 to 1/2, often little widened where these two parts meet, rarely narrowly infundibuliform over the whole length, usually 8 to 18 cm high, 2 to 4 cm wide in the widest part, with 2 prominent ribs over the whole length ; mouth oblique, acute or acuminate and elevated towards the lid ; peristome flattened, 1 to 3 mm broad on the wing side, up to 10 mm broad near the lid, rarely broader, the ribs 1/2 to 3/4 mm apart, the teeth of the inner margin about twice as long as broad ; inner surface of the pitcher glandular in the lower 2/3 to 1/2 with usually overarched glands 300 to 400 glands on 1 cm2 ; lid ovate-cordate, obtuse, slightly cordate, the lower surface without appendage, at most obtusely carinate in the basal part of the midrib, wholly glandular with round deepened and rimmed glands, more densely towards the basal part of the midrib ; spur inserted close to the lid, rarely branched, flattened, 2 to 5 mm long. Male inflorescence a raceme, the peduncle 12 to 18 mm long, 2 to 4 mm thick in the upper portion, mostly thicker below, the axis very angular and grooved, attenuate, 20 to 30 cm long ; lower pedicels 10 to 18 mm long, the upper ones little shorter, most of them 2-flowered with a small, filiform bract above the base, the uppermost ones 1-flowered, rarely most or all of them 1-flowered. Tepals orbicular-oblong to obtuse, obtuse, 4 to 5 mm long. Staminal column about 4 mm long, the anthers included, which are situated in one whorl and an apical group. Female inflorescence almost like the male one, shorter and robuster on the average, 8 to 16 cm long. Tepals lanceolate. Ovary sessile. Fruit mostly 15 to 25 mm long, very differently slender, the valves usually 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 mm broad, slightly or strongly attenuate towards both ends. Seeds filiform, 6 to 15 mm long, the nucleus usually indistinctly transversely wrinkled. Indumentum of the vegetative parts rather long, appressed in youth, later very differently dense, usually deciduous on the stems and the leaves, deciduous or persisting on the lower surface ; on the pitchers often a dense indumentum of stellate hairs, especially towards the peristome, and often forming a tomentose ribbon under it ; in the inflorescences a very dense tomentum when young, composed of appressed stellate hairs, denser and shorter towards the perigone, on the tepals sparse in the middle, dense towards the margin ; the staminal column hairy at the base or over the whole length, the ovary densely and shortly appressedly hairy, the fruit sparsely appressedly hairy or glabrous. Colour of the young stems and leaves glossy green, below lighter than above, the midrib often reddish or brown, the rosette pitchers green, with purple spots or wholly purple outside, the inner surface light-brown in the glandular part, violet or red and pruinose in the upper portion, the upper pitchers always less red, usually green, or green with red spots ; the inflorescence green, the inner side of the perigone excepted, which is yellow when young, later blackish-brown ; indumentum brownish. Colour of herbarium specimens very differently light- or dark-brown or sometimes blackish ; inner surface of the pitchers often reddish or bluish, pruinose in the upper part. (Description after all the Javanese plants, dried and living, seen by the author.)
SUMATRA. Res. Tapiannoeli: "Pager Oetang", XI 1840 or 1841, JUNGHUHN, H. L. B. 908,155-1104 (f) ; "Simmur Woasos", 900-1200 m, 1840-1842, JUNGHUHN, H. L. B. 908,155-1102 (0) ; G. Singgalang, VI-VII 1878, BECCARI, Piante sumatrane 48, H. L. B. (0), G. Malintang, 1900 m, 24 VII 1918, BÜNNEMEIJER 3898, H. B. (0), vern. name: koeran-koeran ; G. Talakmau, 1850 m, 13 V 1917, BÜNNEMEIJER 700, H. B. (0) ; 1550 m, 19 V 1917, BÜNNEMEIJER 763, H. B. (0) ; Bt. Gombak, 2330 m, 16 XI 1918, BÜNNEMEIJER 5748, H. B. (0), vern. name: galoe-galoe antoe ; 1800 m, 4 XI 1918, BÜNNEMEIJER 5488, H. B. (0) ; G. Sago, 2000 m, 8 VIII 1918, BÜNNEMEIJER 4399, H. B. (m) ; 4400, H. B. (0) ; G. Talang, 2100 m, 28 X 1918, BÜNNEMEIJER 5272, H. B. (0).
BORNEO. Southern & Eastern Division: East of Bandjermasin MÜLLER, H. L. B. 908,155-1062 (0).
JAVA. REINWARDT, 1817, H. L. B. 908,156-109 (0) ; ex herbario BISSCHOP, H. L. B. 908,155-783 (m) ; PLOEM, H. L. B. 908,157-1 (f) ; 908,155-97 (0) et 908,155-94 (0) ; HASSKARL, H. L. B. 908,155-1079 (0) ; ZOLLINGER 860, H. L. B. (0) ; JUNGHUHN, H. L. B. 908,155-1065 (0) ; W. Java, KORTHALS, H. L. B. 908,177-1077 (0), authentic specimen of N. melamphora BLUME ; Res. Batavia: Kerawang, Bt. Toenggoel, DE MONCHY 125, H. B. (0) ; G. Kendeng, near Tjianten, 1000 m, I IX 1918, BACKER 25927, H. B. (f) ; Nirmala, 1200 m, 16 XII 1913, BACKER 10606, H. B. (m, f) ; 1100-1400 m, 19 XII 1913, BACKER 10799, H. B. (m). vern. name: sorok radjah mantri ; G. Boender, 1200 m, 8 VIII 1919, BACKER 33375, H. B. (f) ; G. Salak, VIII 1926, ROUPPERT, H. D. 6416 ; near summit II, VIII 1926, ROUPPERT, H. D. 6414 (m) & 6415 (0), H. B..; summit I, 2215 m, 11 V 1900, KOORDERS 36714[[beta]], H. B. (f), vern. name: sorok radjah mantri ; Poentjakpas, 1200 m, 3 III 1927, DANSER 6620, H. B. (0) ; G. Boerangrang, 1200 m, 1 VII 1914, BACKER 14498, H. B. (0) ; Pasir Karèt, 1470 m, 24 VII 1920, VAN SLOOTEN 461, H. B. (0) ; Res. Priangan: 600-1200 m, JUNGHUHN, H. A. R. T. 000255, authentic specimen of N. melamphora var. haematamphora MIQ.; G. Tjisalak, 8 IV 1923, BAKHUIZEN VAN DEN BRINK FIL. 2551, H. B. (0) ; Sindanglaja, HULLETT, H. S. (0) ; G. Gedé, ZIPPEL, H. L. B. 908,155-1053 ; DE MONCHY, H. B. (0) ; 1450 m, 15 IX 1911, BACKER 3150, H. B. (0), vern. name: sorok radjah mantri ; 1000-1500 m, I-IV 1894, SCHIFFNER, Iter indicum 1989, 1992, 1998, 1999 & 1999a, 2000, H. U. V. (0) ; Kawah Baroe, 19 IX 1871, SCHEFFER A 21, H. B. (0) ; Tjibodas, SCHEFFER, H. B. (m) ; border of the Tjikoendoel, 1350 m, 27 IX 1918, DEN BERGER 578, H. B. (0), vern. name: sorog radja mantri ; 1500 m, 18 IV 1894, SCHIFFNER, Iter indicum 1994, H. U. V. (0) ; above Huis-ten-Bosch, 25 VIII 1896, SAPIIN, H. B. (0), vern. name: sorok radjah mantri ; 1800 m 24 VIII 1893, HALLIER 486, H. B. (0) ; 2400 m, 1 XI 1898, KOORDERS 31662[[beta]], H. B. (0), vern. names: anggrek sorok mantri, sorok mantri ; Tjibeureum BURCK, H. B. (0) ; JUNGHUHN, H. B. (0) ; 22 VIII 1879, ARSIN 19714, H. B. (f), vern. name: sorok radjah mantri ; BOERLAGE, H. L. B. 908,155-790 & -1052 (0) ; 27 X 1896, KOORDERS 26077[[beta]], H. B. (f), vern. name: sorok radja mantri ; 29 X 1896, KOORDERS 26014[[beta]], H. B. (m), vern. name: sorok radja mantri ; 1650 m, 10 XII 1925, DANSER 5920 (0), 5921 (0), 5922 (0), 5923 (f), H.D.; 2000 m, 3 VI 1906, PULLE 4039, H. A. R. T. (0) ; between Tjibeureum & Tjipanas, 1700 m, 28 I 1895, HALLIER 518, H. B. (0) ; 1800 m, 2 V 1894, SCHIFFNER, Iter indicum 1993, H. U. V. (0) ; G. Pangrango, JUNGHUHN 1157, H. B. (0) ; above Tapos, 1500 M, JUNGHUHN, H. L. B. 908,155-1071 (m) ; H. A. R. T. 000256 (0) ; Pasir Datar, Tjisaat 1000 m, 9 XII 1904, BAKHUIZEN VAN DEN BRINK 2092, H. B. (f) ; Geger Bintang, 11 VII 1891, BURCK 575, H. B. (0) ; 1906, SMITH, H. B. (0) ; 1950 m, 29 IX 1918, DEN BERGER 617, H. B. (m) ; 1800 m, 31 V 1914, BACKER 13692, H. B. (0) ; G. Boerangrang, G. Soenda, 1900 m, 25 VII 1920, BAKHUIZEN VAN DEN BRINK 4601, H. B. (m) ; Pasir Kohok, 1300 m, 24 VII 1920, BAKHUIZEN VAN DEN BRINK 4486 & 4492, H. B. (0) ; G. Gombong, Tjadasmalang, 1100 m, 8 I 1918, WINCKEL 13b, H. B. (0) ; 1000 m, 2 IV 1919, WINCKEL 437b, H. B. (m) ; 20 II 1917, BAKHUIZEN VAN DEN BRINK 2613, H. B. (0) ; G. Karang, Tjidadap, 1200 m, 15 IX 1923, WINCKEL 1653b, H. B. (0), vern. name: sorog radja mantri ; Tjinjiroean, 1550 m, 4 IV 1911, SMITH & RANT 190, H. B. (0) ; G. Semboeng, Rongga, 1300 m, 18 III 1914, LÖRZING 1172, H. B. (0) ; between G. Semboeng and Margalangoe, 1200-1300 m, 19 III 1914, BACKER 12319a, H. B. (m) ; 12319b, H. B. (f) ; Telaga Bodas, near Bandoeng, 11 VI 1900, DOCTERS VAN LEEUWEN, H. B. (0) ; Telaga Patèngan, 1600 m, 29 III 1914, LÖRZING 1416, H. B. (m) ; G. Papandajan, 23 VI 1891, BURCK 36, H. B. (f) ; IV 1922, VAN RIJCKEVORSEL 9, H. B. (0) ; BOERLAGE, H. L. B. 908,155-788 (0) ; KORTHALS, H. L. B. 908,155-1066 (m), authentic specimen of N. melamphora BLUME ; 1800 m, 26 XI 1912, BACKER, 5539, H. B. (m) ; 1800 m, 14 II 1894, SCHIFFNER, Iter indicum 1995 & 1996 (0), 1997 (f) H.U.V.; G. Djaja, summit, 1510 m, 26 III 1920, LAM 151 J, H. B. (0) ; 152 J, H. B. (m) ; 153 J, H. B. (0) ; G. Mandalagiri, Pamegatan, IV 1922, VAN RIJCKEVORSEL 46, H. B. (0) ; 1600 m, 24 III 1920, LAM 80 J, H. B. (f), H. L. B. (f) ; G. Patoeha, KORTHALS, H. L. B. 908,155-1076 (f) ; G. Goentoer, 1000-2200 m, 15 V 1913, KOENS 120, H. B. (0) ; 1 VII 1891, BURCK 626, H. B. (0) ; KERKHOVEN 19, H. B. (0) ; crater, 1920 m, 19 I 1916, BAKUIZEN VAN DEN BRINK 2338a, H. B. (m) ; 2338 b, H. B. (f) ; G. Wajang, SMITH & RANT 625, H. B. (0) ; 1858, NAGEL 96, H. Berl. (m), vern. name: pakoe soro ; G. Manglajang, 1700 m, 10 XII 1922, WISSE 958, H. B. (0) ; Pangentjongan, 23-27 I 1897, KOORDERS 26622[[beta]], H. B. (f) ; 26758b, H. B. (m) ; 26800b, H. B. (0), vern. name: pakoe sorok, pakoe soro ; G. Telagabodas, 21 VI 1891, BURCK 163, H. B. (0) ; 7 VII 1891, BURCK 556, H. B. (m) ; Res. Tjerebon: G. Tjaremé, 1400 m, VI 1920, VAN DER MEER MOHR 2, H. B. (m) ; 1500 m, V 1920, VERMEULEN 23, H. B. (f) ; 24, H. B. (0) ; Res. Pekalongan: Petoengkriana, 1600 m, 9 IX 1914, BACKER 15768, H. B. (0) ; G. Dièng, at the solfatara Kawah Sepandoe, JUNGHUHN, H. L. B. 908,155-1070 (0), vern. name: kandong smar ; G. Dièng. VORDERMAN A 10, H. B. (m), vern. name: kantong semar ; Res. Banjoemas: G. Slamet, 1070 m, 17 IV 1911, BACKER 420, H. B. (f) ; above Batoe Radèn, 1300 m, 14 IV 1911, BACKER 294, H. B. (0) ; G. Dièng, 1600 m, 25 I 1917, BACKER 21847, H. B. (0) ; G. Prahoe, HORSFIELD, vern. name: kalok tjekko (MIQ., Fl., I, 1, p. 1073) ; Res. Kedoe: G. Soembing, 1700 m, 15 II 1912, LÖRZING 189, H. B. (m), vern. name: koloketiko, gantong semar ; G. Télamaja, Pagergedog, 1400 m, 15 X 1911, DOCTERS VAN LEEUWEN 340, H. B. (m, f) ; Pranten, 1300 m, 27 IX 1911, DOCTERS VAN LEEUWEN 192, H. B. (f) ; 12 VI 1897, KOORDERS 27875[[beta]], H. B. (f), vern. name: koloketjiko ; summit, 1880 m, 8 VI 1897, KOORDERS 27876[[beta]], H. B. (m), vern. names: koloketjiko, kantong semar ; 1500 m, 12 V 1899, KOORDERS 35861[[beta]], H. B. (0), vern. name: kolotjiko ; G. Oengaran, summit of G. Boetak, 2050 m, 22 III 1913, DOCTERS VAN LEEUWEN 1256, H. B. (f) ; 19 X 1913, DOCTERS VAN LEEUWEN 2093 (m, f) ; G. Merbaboe, 2000 m, 1 I 1913, DOCTERS VAN LEEUWEN 1199, H. B. (m) ; G. Merapi, 900-1200 m (MIQ., Fl., I, 1, p. 1073) ; Res. Soerakarta: G. Merbaboe, above Melangbong, 1600 m, 29 III 1920, BACKER 30301, H. B. (0) ; Soerakarta, 1550 m, 30 X 1916, DEN BERGER 62, H. B. (f) ; Res. Madioen: G. Lawoe, Sarangan, 1433 m, RANT, H. B. (m) ; above Sarangan, 1500 m, 7 XI 1926, DANSER 6541 (0), 6542 (m) & 6543 (f), H. D. et H. B., vern. name: kantong semar ; G Koekoesan, 1500-1700 m, XI 1907, ELBERT 209, H. B. (0) ; Res. Kediri: G. Darawati, near Poedjon, 24 V 1920, COERT, H. B. (m).
Cultivated in the Mountain Garden Tjibodas on the rockery.
The oldest and mostly used name of this species, N. melamphora BL., has been published in 1823 as a nomen nudum, with reference to a description of REINWARDT, which never saw the light. Already In 1824 NEES has published the species in a valid manner under the name of N. gymnamphora, and so this name has to be used. BLUME in the first decades has followed NEES, but in 1852 he has re-established his own name and later most botanists have done like him.
The significance of the name melamphora has not been clear to many authors. NEES f.i. seeks the etymology in the words u[[epsilon]][[lambda]][[alpha]][[nu]] (black) and j[[omicron]][[rho]][[alpha]] (bearing), which is certainly wrong, as BLUME in 1852 prefers this name "ob colorem ascidiae, imprimis intus orificium versus atropurpureum". It is therefore obvious, that we have to derive melamphora from u[[eta]][[lambda]][[omicron]][[nu]] (apple) and [[alpha]]uj[[omicron]][[rho]][[alpha]] (pitcher).
The distribution differs from that of all other Nepenthes. There is one area distribution in the Central Sumatra, one in Java, and an isolated habitat in southern Borneo. On the latter a plant has been collected once by MÜLLER ; though it bears no flowers, I do not doubt, whether it is N. gymnamphora, but I am not quite sure, it really comes from Borneo. MIQUEL (Ill, p. 7.) gives also the Khasi Mts. as a habitat, but he means the plant, HOOKER has described 1873 as N. khasiana.
Between the plants from Sumatra and those from Java there are small differences. The Sumatra plants are as a rule more densely hairy and more yellowish-brown coloured. The other parts, however, seem to be quite alike. That this species has not been found in the southern part of Sumatra is probably due to the fact, that these regions are floristically little known. In Java the distribution seems to be limited by the length of the dry season, which becomes longer, when going farther to the east. Cfr. N. mirabilis, and the general chapters.
N. gymnamphora varies not much. I will draw attention to the occurrence of specimens with 1-flowered pedicels among the majority of plants with 2-flowered ones (the numbers BACKER 420 & 25927, BAKHUIZEN VAN DEN BRINK FIL. 2551, LAM 80 J). These generally have larger and wider pitchers and a broader peristome. Perhaps this is a distinct form, but more and better material must be at hand to decide upon this question. A very remarkable plant is BACKER 294, from G. Slamet: it has coarser stems, larger and almost short-petioled leaves, with a more than 1 cm decurrent base, inferior pitchers (only known) large, up to 17 cm high, with an expanded peristome, which is up to 20 mm broad and a very obtuse lid. There is even some resemblance with N. Merrilliana and N. petiolata.
Some unimportant varieties have been described. The var. haematamphora MIQ. (PI. Jungh., p. 169) differs by extremely dark-red pitchers, but as it is impossible to distinguish the innumerable colour-varieties in general, the distinction of this variety too has no value. the var. lucida BLUME (MUS., II, p. 8) differs, according to the author, by very glossy leaves, but the herbarium specimens show nothing particular. The var. tomentella BECCARI (Mal., III, p. 13) is based upon the Sumatra plants which usually are much more hairy than the Java ones, but also in the Javanese plants very different grades of hairiness may be observed. When BECCARI says: "nella medesima localita però si trovano anche degli esemplari assolutamente glabri", he undoubtedly means the closely related N. pectinata, which grows along with N. gymnamphora on some mountains of Central Sumatra.
N. gymnamphora exclusively grows in the mountains. The elevation recorded for Sumatra varies between 900 and 2330 m, for Java between 900 and 2400 m ; in the latter island, however, most of the habitats are situated between 1000 and 2000 m. It thrives not only in the dense forest, but also on open mountain summits and in the latter habitats the flowers are more abundant than in the forest. In Central Java N. gymnamphora can grow even on places, which are extremely dry during several months, f.i. near Sarangan on Mt. Lawoe, where I collected it myself, VON FABER (l.c.) mentions it among the crater-plants of the Java vulcanoes. Cf. for the mode of growth and catching animals: HEINRICHER, Annales du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg, XX, p. 294-296.
Perhaps this species has some significance in native medicine ; HASSKARL (Over het nut &c., p. 109) records a species from Java, called "serok radja mantrie" by the Sundanese people, and says, the water of the pitchers is drunk against cough ; this species can only be N. gymnamphora.
Vernacular names. On the western coast of SUMATRA, Minangkabau ; koeran-koeran, galoe-galoe antoc (the latter name already recorded by TEYSMANN, N.T.N.I., XIV, p. 269 for an unnamed species) ; in western Java, Sundanese: sorok radjah mantri, anggrèk sorok mantri, sorok mantri, pakoe sorok (pakoe sorok radjah, BLUME), kendi monjèt, gendi monjèt ; in central and eastern Java, Javanese: koloketjiko and kantong semar, the latter 2 names being synonym in different regions. The significance of most of these names is not clear, especially of those used in Java. Gendi or kendi monjit means monkeys' jug, koeran-koeran coal-pans. Several names are often wrongly written, especially koloketjiko, for which we read koloketiko, kaliketjika &c. KORTHALS records the vernacular name: daoen gendi, which is Malay, but he does not mention, where this name is used. MIQUEL cites kantong awar from JUNGHUHN, wrongly, as the label of the latter gives: kandong smar, which has to be transcribed kantong semar ; serok radja mantis, given by MIQUEL, and semar kantoeng, recorded by DE CLERCQ, too, are undoubtedly wrong.