Danser's Monograph on Nepenthes: Nepenthes gracillima

15. Nepenthes gracillima RIDL.-N. Bongso RIDL., Journ. Linn. Soc., bot., XXXVIII, p. 320 (1908) ; non KORTH., Verh., p. 19 (1839) &c.; N. gracillima RIDL., Journ. Linn. Soc., bot., XXXVIII, p. 320 (1908) ; MACF., in ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 38 (1908) ; ? RIDL., Journ. Fed. Mal. St. Mus., IV, p. 59 (1909) ; MACF., Journ. As. Soc. Beng., LXXV, p. 282 (1914) ; non BECC., Mal., III, p. 4 & 12 (1886) ; N. ramispina RIDL., Journ. Fed. Mal. St. Mus., IV, p. 59 (1909) ; Fl., III, p. 22 (1924) ; N. alba RIDL. Fl., III, p. 22 (1924).

Icon: nostra 7.

Folia mediocria sessilia, lamina spathulato-lanceolata v. lineari-lanceolata, nervis longitudinalibus utrinque 0-4, basi semiamplexicauli raro paulum decurrente, vagina 0 ; ascidia rosularum ignota ; ascidia inferiora parva v.

. Fig. 7. Nepenthes gracillima (RIDLEY 12064) ; a. upper portion of a male plant, 1/2 x ; b. rosette leaf with pitcher, 1/2 x ; c. fruiting raceme, 1/2 x.

mediocria, parte inferiore campanulato-infundibuliformia, medio paulum angustata, os versus cylindrica, alis 2 fimbriatis, peristomio operculum versus acuminato v. in collum breve elevato, 1/2-1 1/2 mm lato, costis 1/2-1/4 mm distantibus, dentibus 0 v. ad 2 x longioribus quam latis, operculo suborbiculari, facie inferiore plano ; ascidia superiora parva v. mediocria, e parte inferiore anguste infundibuliformi tubuloso, sub medio paulum ventricosa, costis 2 prominentibus, peristomio operculum versus elevato v. in collum breve elongato, applanato, 1-2 mm lato, costis l/2-1/4 mm distantibus, dentibus 0 v. ad 2 x longioribus quam latis, operculo suborbiculari v. cordato-orbiculari, facie inferiore plano ; inflorescentia racemus gracilis pedicellis inferioribus 4-10 mm longis 1-floris raro 2-floris, superioribus paulo brevioribus semper 1-floris ; indumentum in partibus vegetativis parcum, in caulibus saepe viloso-tomentosum, in inflorescentiis densum stellatum adpressum.

Stems climbing, the part with adult leaves cylindrical or obtusely angular, 2 1/2 to 4 mm thick, the internodes 1 to 9 cm long: short shoots known, rosettes unknown. Leaves thin-coriaceous, scattered, spathulate-oblong to linear-lanceolate, 4 to 14 cm long, 0.8 to 4 cm broad, acute or obtuse, very differently attenuate towards the base, which is rounded or slightly cordate, clasping the stem for 1/2 or more ; longitudinal nerves distinct or indistinct, 0 to 4 on each side, running parallel in the outer 1/4 of the lamina ; tendrils once to twice as long as the leaf, those of the lower leaves without, those of the upper leaves with curl. Pitchers of the rosettes unknown. Pitchers of the lower leaves shortly incurved from the hanging tendril, the curve at most 5 mm wide in the lower part, campanulate-infundibuliform, slightly widened in the middle, cylindrical to the mouth, 4 to 10 cm high, l 1/2 to 2 1/2 cm wide in the lower part, 0.8 to 2 cm under the mouth, with 2 fringed wings over the whole length, the wings up to 2 mm wide, the fringe segments up to 5 mm long, 1 to 3 mm apart ; mouth slightly oblique in front strongly elevated and acuminate towards the lid or even elongated into a short neck ; peristome cylindrical to flattened 1/2 to l l/2 mm broad, the ribs 1/2 to 1/4 mm apart, the teeth of the interior margin up to twice as long as broad ; inner surface of the pitcher in the lower 2/5 part shining, with minute overarched glands, which make the outer surface minutely bullate, about 100 to 300 glands on 1 cm2 ; lid suborbicular, rarely slightly ovate, rounded at the apex, slightly cordate at the base, 6 to 28 mm long and broad ; spur inserted at 1 to 2 mm from the lid, strongly or slightly branched or not, 2 to 10 mm long. Upper pitchers rather shortly incurved from the hanging tendril, the curve 3 to 25 mm wide, narrowly infundibuliform in the lower 2/5 part, slightly narrowed in the middle or gradually merging into the upper cylindrical part, 6 to 24 cm high, 1 to 3 1/2 cm wide in the widest part, with 2 prominent ribs over the whole length ; mouth slightly oblique in the front part, elevated towards the lid or even prolongated into a short neck, flattened-cylindrical, 1 to 2 mm broad, the ribs 1/2 to 1/4 mm apart, the teeth of the interior margin up to twice as long as broad ; lid suborbicular or orbicular-ovate, rounded at the apex, slightly cordate at the base, 1 to 4 cm long, 0.8 to 4 cm broad, the inferior surface flat with few or many, rather large, round, deepened and framed glands and with delicate or coarser spreading bristles or not ; spur inserted 1 to 2 mm from the lid, flattened, more or less, sometimes strongly branched, 1 to 10 mm long. Male inflorescence a raceme, the peduncle 3 to 15 cm long, 1 to 2 mm thick, the axis 2 1/2 to 14 cm long, angular, attenuate, the pedicels 4 to 10 mm long in the lower part, mostly 1-flowered, rarely 2-flowered, the upper ones little shorter, always 1-flowered, most of them with a filiform bract above the base. Tepals orbicular-elliptical to oblong, 2 to 4 mm long. Staminal column 2 to 5 mm long, included the 1-seriate anthers. Female inflorescence almost like the male one, insufficiently known. Fruit sessile, slender, up to 13 mm long, the valves lanceolate, attenuate towards both ends, not acuminate, up to 2 1/2 mm broad. Seed filiform, about 8 mm long, the nucleus strongly transversely wrinkled. Indumentum sparse or none in the vegetative parts, rarely more developed velvety or tomentose on the stems, composed of shorter and longer stellate hairs, the inflorescences hirsute-tomentose when young, later with an appressed long- or short-hairy tomentum, the perigone and base of the staminal column always densely velvety-tomentose. Colour of the pitchers green or white with dark-purple spots. Colour of herbarium specimens reddish-brown in very different hues, the pitchers often densely spotted, especially towards the top. (Description after all the plants seen by the author.)

MALAY PENINSULA. Kelantan: G. Sitong, 810 m, 6 Ill 1924, NUR 12219, H. S. (0) ; Pahang: G. Tahan, 990 m, 29 V 1905, WRAY & ROBINSON 5309, H. S. (m, f), type of N. gracillima RIDL.; 1500 m, 3 VI 1905, WRAY & ROBINSON 5411, H. S. (m), type of N. alba RIDL.; VII 1911, RIDLEY 16098, H. S. (m), authentic specimen of N. gracillima RIDL.; 1650-2100 m, 12 VI 1922, HANIFF & NUR 7890, H. S. (m), 7891, H. S. (m), H. B. (m) ; Pine Tree Hill, 1440 m, 27 VIII 1923, NUR 11057, H. S. (0) ; Telom, RIDLEY, H. S. (0) ; XI 1908, RIDLEY 13704, H. S. (0) ; Selangor: G. Semangko, summit, 1904, RIDLEY 12064, H. S. (m, f), type of N. ramispina RIDL.; 1911, RIDLEY, H. S. (0) ; 1200 m, IV 1911, RIDLEY 15563, H. S. (0), type of N. gracillima var. maior RIDL.; Semangko Pass, II 1904, BURN-MURDOCH, H. S. (0) ; Main Range, Semangko Pass, 1370 m, 20 II 1904, BURN-MURDOCH, H. S. (0) ; G. Mengkuang, 1500 m, 13 I 1913, H. S. (m).

This species, established by RIDLEY in 1908, seems to be restricted to some mountains of the Malay Peninsula. The elevation recorded varies between 810 and 2100 m. N. gracillima is not always easily distinguishable from N. Macfarlanei and N. sanguinea growing in the same regions, sometimes also not from the related species from Sumatra. This has caused some of the synonyms.

I can not distinguish RIDLEY's N. ramispina and N. alba, the type specimens of which I have seen, from N. gracillima, of which too I have seen the type. The differences given by RIDLEY are of very little importance. MACFARLANE, when recording this species in his monograph in 1908, did not yet know it well, and this was the cause he mentioned some of the specimens seen by him, under N. singalana, which indeed is only known from Sumatra. The N. Bongso of RIDLEY is described afterwards by the same author as N. alba ; the real N. Bongso only occurs in Sumatra.

The opinion of MACFARLANE, that N. gracillima is nearly related to N. albo-marginata, is certainly wrong. See the general chapters. The var. maior RIDL. (Fl., III, p. 22) is, as is obvious from the description and the type specimens, only a large form, as may be distinguished in most other species, and it has no taxonomic value.

? Nepenthes gracillima x Macfarlanei.

MALAY PENINSULA. Perak: G. Batu Putih, summit, 2000 m, WRAY 339, H. B. (0), H. S. (0) ; Pahang: Tahan, Wray's Camp, VII 1911, RIDLEY 16174, H. S. (0).

The above specimens of the H. S. seem to be intermediates between N. gracillima and N. Macfarlanei, but the material is too insufficient for a decisive determination. The pitchers are too wide for N. gracillima and the underside of the lid in the number WRAY 339 bears the typical bristles of N. Macfarlanei. I should prefer to mention this specimen under the latter species, the pitchers of which vary extraordinarily, when the interior margin of the peristome were not entire. The other number, RIDLEY 16174, bears much more dense and delicate hairs on the underside of the lid, a character that is also often found in N. sanguinea and N. Macfarlanei. The only pitcher also reminds both species. As the three species mentioned occur in the same regions, it is very well possible, that the numbers cited here are hybrids. See the general chapters.

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