As transcribed by Arthur Lauffenburger

hypertext conversion by Rick Walker

Quick index:

  • Nepenthes alata
  • Nepenthes albo-marginata
  • Nepenthes ampullaria
  • Nepenthes bicalcarata
  • Nepenthes bongso
  • Nepenthes Boschiana
  • Nepenthes Burbidgeae
  • Nepenthes carunculata
  • Nepenthes clipeata
  • Nepenthes decurrens
  • Nepenthes dubia
  • Nepenthes ephippiata
  • Nepenthes fusca
  • Nepenthes gracilis
  • Nepenthes gracillima
  • Nepenthes gymnamphora
  • Nepenthes hirsuta
  • Nepenthes Hookeriana
  • Nepenthes inermis
  • Nepenthes insignes
  • Nepenthes Klossii
  • Nepenthes leptochila
  • Nepenthes Lowii
  • Nepenthes Macfarlanei
  • Nepenthes Maxima
  • Nepenthes Merrilliana
  • Nepenthes mirabilis
  • Nepenthes mollis
  • Nepenthes neglecta
  • Nepenthes neoguineensis
  • Nepenthes Northiana
  • Nepenthes oblanceolata
  • Nepenthes paniculata
  • Nepenthes papuana
  • Nepenthes pectinata
  • Nepenthes petiolata
  • Nepenthes pilosa
  • Nepenthes Rafflesiana
  • Nepenthes Rajah
  • Nepenthes Reinwardtiana
  • Nepenthes sanguinea
  • Nepenthes singalana
  • Nepenthes spectabilis
  • Nepenthes stenophylla
  • Nepenthes tentaculata
  • Nepenthes tobaica
  • Nepenthes tomoriana
  • Nepenthes Treubiana
  • Nepenthes trichocarpa
  • Nepenthes Veitchii
  • Nepenthes Vieillardii
  • Nepenthes villosa
  • General Discussion
  • Literature Cited
  • The Nepenthaceae as a whole have already been revised several times, most recently by MACFARLANE in 1908. Yet a new revision of the material extant in the Buitenzorg Herbarium seems not to be superfluous. Since 1908 many new forms have been discovered, the distribution of the forms already described has become better known, whereas a better delimitation of the species and different theoretical considerations have become possible. Moreover there remained very valuable materials not yet worked up, such as specimens collected by TEYSMANN and HALLIER. Every expedition to the centres of distribution makes available new forms, or supplies additional materials to known species, which induce us to unite forms previously separated. So the number of species enumerated in the different revisions is very variable. Whereas in the monograph of MACFARLANE it amounts to 58, and has considerable increased since by the description of new species by different authors, it has been reduced by me to 48, while 17 new species have been added.

    In addition to the species of Nepenthes which occur in the Netherlands lndies proper, I have also discussed those which grow in the Malay Peninsula, the British part of Borneo and the eastern part of New Guinea. The synonymy of these has been recorded as completely as possible. All remaining species of the genus have been considered in the general discussions, but of these I have only recorded the most necessary synonyms.

    After the synonyms of each species a list of figures I met with, is enumerated. Of the species, not yet figured, a new plate has been given, as far as possible.

    When endeavoring to give an approximate picture of the plants, the descriptions of Nepenthes must necessarily be long ; consequently they are not easily grasped. Also it was impossible to compose a key, by which all forms could be determined. To cope with both difficulties every description is preceded by a Latin diagnosis, in which the most important distinctive characters have been enumerated. This may supply a second way to find the name of a plant.

    Subspecies and varieties have nowhere been distinguished by me, as the polymorphy of the species in general is too little known to make such a distinction in the same weight in each case. The forms that deserved a specific name have been given one, the less clearly limited forms have not been named at all. This seems to be the right way to avoid complication of the nomenclature of a genus so little known. Moreover, the forms which have been distinguished as varieties up to the present, usually are not more than extreme variations of polymorphous species, having no value from a taxonomical point of view, since they give no idea of the polymorphy of the species in general. Often authors have gone so far as to describe specimens with extremely large or broad leaves, or with very long internodes, and different stages of growth as varieties or even as species. Continuing in this way can only discredit systematics, especially that of the forms within the species.

    The herbaria, of which I have had the opportunity to study a smaller or greater number of specimens, are the following:

    H. A. R. T. = Herbarium Academicum Rheno-Traiectinum, the Herbarium of the University of Utrecht.

    H. B. = Herbarium Bogoriense, the Herbarium of the Buitenzorg Botanic Gardens.

    H. Berl. = Herbarium of the Botanic Museum at Berlin.

    H. Br. = Herbarium of the Botanic Gardens, Brisbane.

    H. C. = Herbarium of the Botanic Gardens, Calcutta.

    H. D. = Herbarium DANSER.

    H. D. P. S. = Herbarium of the Deli Experiment Station.

    H. L. B. = Herbarium Lugduno-Batavum, the State Herbarium at Leiden.

    H. M. P. V. = Herbarium Musei Palatini Vindobonensis, the Herbarium of the Museum of Natural History at Vienna.

    H. S. = Herbarium of the Botanic Gardens, Singapore.

    H. S. M. = Herbarium of the Sarawak Museum.

    H. U. C. = Herbarium of the University of California, Berkeley.

    H. U. V. = Herbarium of the University, Vienna.

    Moreover the following abbreviations have often been used:

    Bt. = Boetkit (Bukit), mountain, hill.

    G. = Goenoeng (Gunong), mountain.

    Kp. = Kampoeng (Kampong), native village.

    P. = Poelau, Poeloe, Poelo (Pulau, Pulo), island.

    Sg. = Soengai (Sungei, Sungi), river.

    (f) = materials, at least partly, with female flowers or fruits.

    (m) = materials, at least partly, with male flowers.

    (0) = materials without flowers or fruits.

    The figures have been drawn by the draughtsmen of the Buitenzorg Herbarium under my direction ; the numbers 5, 6, 10, 19 by SOEMAWINATA, the others by AMIR HAMZAH.

    The native names in the list of habitats have been written in the orthography of the labels ; in the discussions at the end of each species, however, the correct Dutch orthography, when this was possible, has been used.

    Only genus of the order:


    LINNÉ, Gen. pl., ed. 5 (1754). For literature and synonyms see the separate species and the monograph Of MACFARLANE in ENGLER, Pflanzenreich, IV, 111 (1908).

    Dioecious undershrubs or lianes. Stems mostly long, climbing, sometimes prostrate or short and erect, from few dm to more than 20 m long, in high-climbing species up to 5 cm thick in the lower part, the leaf-bearing portion 1 to 20 mm thick, cylindrical, angular or more or less winged as an effect of the decurrent leaves. Young plants rosette-shaped, older plants always elongated, in climbing species often with elongated climbing stems, abbreviate, not-climbing stems, which further on are indicated as "short shoots", and secondary rosettes ; secondary rosettes placed laterally at the basal part of older stems, also arising from the subterranean part, mostly very dense, rarely with elongated internodes, later often growing out to long stems ; short shoots with short but distinct internodes, later often growing out to longer stems ; elongated stems with internodes up to 18 cm long. Leaves composed of a phyllodium, a tendril, a pitcher and a lid ; phyllodia of the elongated stems foliaceous to coriaceous, mostly lanceolate to spathulate, rarely broader, never incised, usually entire, very rarely fimbriate-denticulate, often attenuate into a petioliform part, often forming a sheath at its base or decurrent into 2 longer or shorter wings ; nervation pennate and parallel, the midrib always robust and prominent below, gradually merging into the tendril, the pennate nerves running more or less obliquely towards the margin, more or less reticulate by irregular connecting veins, often indistinct (even in dried specimens) ; longitudinal nerves originating from the base of the phyllodium, from the basal part of the midrib or from the network of the lower pennate nerves, more or less numerous (0-15) on each side, the innermost ones ending near the tip of the phyllodium, the outer ones ending at gradually greater distances from the tip ; phyllodia of the short shoots like those of the elongated ones, but often larger ; phyllodia of the rosettes always smaller than those of the longer stems, sometimes very small or nearly wanting. Tendrils of the leaves of the elongated stems usually 1 1/2 times as long as the phyllodium, with a curl at about 2/3 of its length, those of the lower leaves and of the short shoots usually shorter, with or without curl, those of the rosettes much shorter, not much longer than the pitcher or even shorter, never with curl. Pitchers of the different parts of the plant always more or less, often very differently shaped, with 2 wings fimbriate or not, or only with 2 prominent ribs at the side of the pitcher which was originally the upper side of the leaf ; the inner surface always glandular in a larger or smaller lower part, glandless and pruinose in the upper part, the glands flat but usually overarched by the parenchyma of the pitcher wall growing out ; longitudinal nerves of the pitcher parallel in the lower part, between the wings or ribs more reticulate towards the mouth, in the other part converging towards the insertion of the lid in the upper half, supplied by nerves originating from the wings or ribs and likewise converging towards the insertion of the lid ; back rib with a strong nerve ending in the spur, which is inserted near the lid or at some distance from it ; all longitudinal nerves connected by transverse veins which sometimes form a regular transversal nervation crossing the longitudinal nervation and forming rectangles with it. Mouth of the pitcher more or less oblique, often incurved towards the lid or prolonged into a neck, usually with a so-called peristome, a plate, inserted perpendicularly on the rim of the mouth, ribbed on its upper surface, usually dentate at its inner margin, involute to flat in its inner part, involute to expanded in its outer part, this making the total peristome cylindrical, flattened or expanded. Rosette pitchers usually small, widest near the base, usually urceolate to ovate or more cylindrical towards the mouth, the wings usually well developed and fringed and facing the centre of the rosette, the peristome relatively narrow ; pitchers of the short shoots and of the lower part of the elongated stems larger than those of the rosettes, but nearly of the same shape, usually more oblong, the wings sometimes without fringe or reduced to prominent ribs, the peristome flatter and broader ; pitchers of the climbing stems not always developed in all leaves, sometimes not at all developed, usually more tubulose or infundibuliform and smaller than the lower ones, the side of the lid mostly facing the stem, the peristome relatively broad, the teeth of its inner margin usually shorter, the wings usually reduced to prominent ribs. Lid inserted on the side opposite to the wings, covering the pitcher when young, opening later, often changing its shape afterwards, narrowly cuneate to broadly reniform when adult, palminervous, the midrib beneath in its basal part often elevated to a keel or crest or to a laterally flattened appendage, rarely forming a second appendage near its apex ; lower surface with more or less numerous, usually deepened and rimmed glands, sometimes beset with coarse hairs. Inflorescence a peduncled raceme or panicle, terminal, but later appearing more or less lateral by the development of a branch in the axil of the uppermost leaf ; if a raceme, then the pedicels 1-flowered or furcate and 2-flowered, if a panicle, then its lower branches corymbosely branched and 3- to 10 flowered, the upper ones less-flowered. Female inflorescence only little different from the male one, somewhat longer-peduncled, shorter and more robust. Perigone hypogynous 4-merous (rarely 3-, 5- or 6-merous), the tepals free or almost so, the outer 2 often somewhat larger than the inner 2, all of them rounded elliptical to lanceolate, with numerous elliptical deepened glands on the inner surface, those of the male flower usually somewhat broader than those of the female. Stamens united into a column nearly as long as the tepals often somewhat longer or shorter ; anthers sessile and crowded, in one whorl, or in one whorl and an apical group, or almost in 2 whorls, bilocular, extrorse, opening with longitudinal slits. Ovary ellipsoidal or somewhat angular, sometimes sub-pedicellate at the base, 4-locular, with central placentae ; stigmata 4, sessile, flat and expanded ; ovules anatrope, numerous. Fruit a fusiform, many-seeded, loculicide capsule. Seeds filiform by the testa prolonged into two opposite appendages, the nucleus small, ellipsoidal to cylindrical, with albumen and cylindrical embryo. Indumentum often stellate, forming a more or less dense tomentum, often more spreading, and then the longer hairs not-branched, the shorter ones branched in the lower part.

    Data concerning monoeceous plants are very rare and not beyond doubt. Climbing stems are not known in all species, but it always remains possible that of the species, which are now known as non-climbing, climbing stems will be discovered later on, as species which are normally climbing often produce non-climbing forms on dry and open habitats, especially on open mountain tops. The differentiation of the shoots of the same plant into elongated ones, short ones and rosettes is not the same in all species. Some Nepenthes show the 3 forms of stems very distinctly, others have only climbing and short shoots or elongated stems and rosettes, while of many species only elongated or abbreviate stems are known ; most of the species, however, are very insufficiently known in this respect. The short shoots are in some ways intermediate between the rosettes and the climbing stems, but not in all respects ; the dimensions, for instance, of their leaves and pitchers are often much greater than those of the rosette and upper pitchers. The phyllotaxis is not always easy to state, especially in herbarium specimens ; generally, it is 2/5, in the rosettes always, in the short shoots in most cases, whereas in the climbing stems a phyllotaxis of 1/2 is not rare ; probably intermediate and irregular dispositions of the leaves are also to be found. For the distinction of species the phyllotaxis it too inconstant a character. The phyllodium of the leaf is usually called leaf or lamina in the descriptive literature and I have followed this practice, as it does not lead to confusion. In the diagnoses and descriptions the leaf is called sessile or petiolate ; with this expression I have meant that the phyllodium is attenuate, or not, into a more or less petioliform, usually winged part. When not yet familiar with the leaf-forms of Nepenthes and their variability, one is inclined to call the phyllodia of all Nepenthes sessile. However, even for the adept it is often difficult to say, whether the phyllodia of a species have to be considered as petiolate or sessile. Moreover one must bear in mind, that in all species the leaves which precede an inflorescence are always sessile. This renders the determination of detached extremities of stem, even when they bear flowers, very difficult. Detached rosettes too, are difficult to name, as their leaves often have a shape different from that of the other leaves and are often less distinctly petioled. The number of longitudinal nerves, though an indispensable character for the distinction of species, is not so constant as is generally accepted. In many species it varies together with the breadth of the leaves, which in its turn is correlative with the width of the pitchers. A relation between the form of the different pitchers of one plant and their other characters can not be denied. In general the widest part of the pitcher becomes situated nearer the mouth, as the pitcher is placed higher on the plant ; at the same time the glandular part of the inner surface increases, till in the infundibuliform pitcher the whole or nearly the whole inner surface is glandular. In species which normally have tubulose upper pitchers, with an inner surface glandular for about 2/5 its length, one may expect some day infundibuliform upper pitchers, which undoubtedly will be glandular over the whole inner surface. When unacquainted with the variability of Nepenthes in general one may be inclined to base a new species on such a form. The glands on the underside of the lid have often a peculiar form. Their surface is flat but often deepened and they are surrounded by a thickened rim, more or less overarching the marginal part. They are shortly called: rimmed glands. The male and female inflorescences and flowers of the same species are only slightly different. The female inflorescence is in general shorter, but longer-peduncled, all parts somewhat coarser, the tepals narrower. The difference in coarseness increases when the fruits begin to develop, but the dimensions of the inflorescences and the perigones remain almost the same.

    Both the construction and the proper use of a key for the determination of the species in this genus is difficult, because in Nepenthes there are so few characters, which are relatively constant in one and the same species, but different in different species. The best distinctive characters are those of the lid and the peristome, but these too often show an unexpected variation. When differences in the flowers are to be stated, the variability in these characters is usually so large, that they have little value for specific distinction. The characters of the indumentum, however, are much more constant than one would expect.

    1 Leaves and stems very coarse, the leaves decurrent into 2 thick ribs, meeting 1 1/2 internodes below the leaf base, forming saddles on which are inserted the petioles. Borneo. Fig. 5 12. N. ephippiata

    Leaves not inserted on saddles 2

    2 Whole plant yellowish-brown. hairy in all parts with exception of the perigone inside and the anthers ; most parts with a short, dense, spreading indumentum. Leaves lanceolate, sessile with a broad base and decurrent into 2 gradually attenuate wings, with 0-2 longitudinal nerves on each side. Borneo. Fig. 14 28. N. mollis

    Not this combination of characters 3

    3 Lid of the pitcher more than 3 times as long as broad 4

    Lid of the pitcher less than 3 times as long as broad 7

    4 Lid broadest in or above the middle. No appendages on the lid below 5

    Lid broadest near the base. An appendage on the lower surface near the base and usually one near the apex 14

    5 Pitchers only or almost only in distinct rosettes. rarely also at the lower leaves of climbing stems, urceolate ; peristome broad, flattened inside, very delicately ribbed. Flowers in panicles, the lower branches of which bear 3 or more flowers. Sumatra to New Guinea. 2. N. ampullaria

    Pitchers also at the leaves of the elongated stems, not urceolate. Flowers in racemes, the lower pedicels of which bear 1 or 2 flowers. 6

    6 Peristome none or almost none. Sumatra. Fig. 10. 19. N. inermis

    Peristome distinct, rather broad. Sumatra. Fig. 4. 11. N. dubia

    7 Peristome with 2 curved thorns below the lid. Lid reniform, less long than broad. Borneo. 4. N. bicalcarata

    Peristome not with thorns under the lid. Lid not reniform. 8

    8 Lid on the lower surface with coarse hairs, Obtusely keeled in the basal part of the midrib. Pitchers strongly contracted in the middle, subglobose in the lower part, infundibuliform in the upper part. Peristome almost absent. Borneo. 23. N. Lowii

    Lid usually without coarse hairs on the lower surface ; if with hairs, then the shape of the pitcher otherwise and the peristome distinct. 9

    9 Ribs of the peristome very coarse, 5-10 mm or more apart and several mm high. Borneo. 51. N. villosa

    Ribs of the peristome much less coarse 10

    10 Midrib of the lid beneath with an appendage near the base or near the apex or both, or at least very distinctly keeled 11

    Midrib of the lid beneath without such appendages and at most indistinctly keeled or seemingly keeled by a fold 21

    11 Leaves suborbicular, the tendril inserted on the lamina far from the apex, without curl. Pitchers almost wingless, contracted between the strongly ventricose lower and the infundibuliform upper part. Lid strongly vaulted. Borneo. Fig. 2. 9. N. clipeata

    Leaves and pitchers shaped otherwise. Lid not strongly vaulted 12

    12 Leaves oblong to lanceolate, the tendril inserted at some distance from the apex. Pitchers large, urceolate, their mouth occupying more than half the front side ; lid very large, about 2/3 as long as the pitcher. Borneo. 38. N. Rajah

    Tendril inserted at, or close to, the leaf apex. Lid not so extraordinarily large. 13

    13 Leaves sessile. On the lower surface of the lid near the apex an irregular excrescence. 43

    Leaves petiolate. On the lower surface of the lid sometimes an appendage, but not an irregular excrescence. 14

    14 Only an appendage near the base of the lid. 15

    Also an appendage near the apex of the lid. 20

    15 Stems, petioles and leaves beneath with a hirsute red-brown or ferrugineous indumentum at least when young. 16

    Stems, petioles and leaves without a hirsute indumentum. 19

    16 Lid broadly cordate or suborbicular. 17

    Lid ovate-cordate or narrower. 18

    17 Pitchers subcylindrical, usually slightly ventricose in the lower part, somewhat narrowed in the middle, slightly infundibuliform towards the mouth, rarely narrowly infundibuliform from the base to the top. Appendage near the base of the lid obtuse. Hirsute indumentum abundant but short (about 2 mm long). Borneo. Fig. 22. 43. N. stenophylla

    Upper pitchers widely infundibuliform. Appendage near the base of the lid acute. Hirsute indumentum abundant and long (more than 3 mm). Borneo. Fig 19.
    36. N. pilosa

    See also 7. N. Burbidgeae (Borneo) and 21. N. Klossi ; (New Guinea, Fig. 12), the former of which has triangular stems with decurrent leaves and infundibuliform upper pitchers, whereas the latter is very similar to N. stenophylla (as far as known) but seems to differ in many less important characters.

    18 Stems climbing. Leaves not decurrent ; lamina broadest near the middle. Lower pitchers slightly ventricose in the lower part, cylindrical towards the mouth, the upper ones infundibuliform. Inflorescences seemingly lateral. Indumentum short and dense. Borneo. Fig. 6. 13. N. fusca

    Stems not climbing. Leaves broadest near the apex. Pitchers cylindrical-ellipsoidal, or the upper ones somewhat campanulate-infundibuliform. Inflorescences not seemingly lateral. 20

    19 Leaves not decurrent. Upper pitchers rarely more than 16 cm high. Peristome cylindrical to flattened, rarely more than 5 mm broad. Lid rarely more than 4 1/2 cm long, suborbicular to ovate. 33

    Leaves decurrent into 2 wings 2-3 mm broad. Upper pitchers 20-25 cm high. Peristome expanded, 10-20 mm broad on the sides. Lid suborbicular, 5-7 cm long. Borneo.
    6. N. Boschiana

    20 Stems not climbing. Leaves broadest near the apex, rounded or emarginate at the apex, gradually attenuate towards the base. Pitchers all cylindrical-ellipsoidal or the upper ones campanulate-infundibuliform. Appendage near the apex of the lid distinct or indistinct. Borneo. 49. N. Veitchii

    Stems usually climbing. Leaves usually broadest far from the apex, not emarginate. Pitchers very different in shape, the lower ones ventricose in the lower part, cylindrical for the rest, the upper ones tubulose to infundibuliform. Appendage near the apex of the lid always distinct. Borneo to New Guinea. 25. N. maxima

    See also 32. N. oblanceolata (New Guinea), which seems to be not distinguishable from certain forms of N. maxima.

    21 Below the peristome a thick-swollen, whitish, tomentose ribbon. Leaves lanceolate, sessile, without sheath, not decurrent, with spreading hairs below. Upper pitchers usually tubulose. Sumatra and Malay Peninsula to Borneo. 2. N. albo-marginata

    Below the peristome a tomentose ribbon or not, but never a swollen whitish one. 22

    22 Lid nearly elliptical, broadest in or above the middle. 23

    Lid ovate, cordate or suborbicular. 24

    23 Lower pitchers in rosettes, urceolate, the upper ones rarely developed, infundibuliform. Peristome flattened on the inner side. Leaves obovate to oblong or lanceolate, petiolate. Stems and leaves when young and inflorescences with a dense ferrugineous indumentum. Sumatra and Malay Peninsula to Borneo. Fig. 9.
    18. N. Hookeriana

    Lower pitchers ovate-cylindrical, the upper ones infundibuliform or campanulate-infundibuliform, the peristome not flattened at the inner side. Leaves lanceolate to linear, sessile with a broad base, semi-amplexicaul, shortly decurrent. Plant nearly glabrous. Sumatra, Malay Peninsula. 48. N. trichocarpa

    24 Inflorescence a panicle, the lower branches 3- or more-flowered. 25

    Inflorescence a raceme, the lower branches 1- or 2-flowered. 27

    25 Leaves distinctly petiolate. Upper pitchers infundibuliform. New Guinea. Fig. 15.
    33. N. paniculata

    Leaves petiolate, but often indistinctly, or sessile with attenuate base. Upper pitchers nearly cylindrical. 26

    26 Upper pitchers winged. New Guinea. 30. N. neoguineensis

    Upper pitchers not winged. Selébès. Fig. 24. 46. N. tomoriana

    27 Normal leaves petiolate. 28

    Normal leaves sessile. 34

    28 Upper pitchers whether more than 20 cm high or infundibuliform. 29

    Upper pitchers neither more than 20 cm high nor infundibuliform. 31

    29 Lower pitchers ovate-conical, upper pitchers infundibuliform, all of them with a peristome elongated into a long, bicristate neck. Lid ovate, vaulted, obtuse or emarginate at the apex. Sumatra and Malay Peninsula to Borneo. 37. N. Rafflesiana

    Not an elongated bicristate neck at the peristome and not such a lid 30

    30 Upper pitchers tubulose-infundibuliform. Lid ovate. Borneo. Fig.3. 10. N. decurrens

    Upper pitchers entirely infundibuliform. Lid suborbicular. Sumatra, New Guinea, Fig. 25. 47. N. Treubiana

    31 Leaves with 4-8 longitudinal nerves on each side, sometimes fimbriate-denticulate at the margin. Always distinctly petiolate. From southern China and Sumatra to the Louisiade Archipelago. 27. N. mirabilis

    Leaves usually with 4 or less nerves on both sides ; when more than 4 nerves, then the leaf not distinctly petiolate and never denticulate. 32

    32 Stems and leaves below with hirsute, red-brown indumentum. 41

    Stems and leaves below without hirsute, red-brown indumentum. 33

    33 Leaves lanceolate, gradually attenuate into the petiole, with 5-6 strikingly parallel longitudinal nerves on each side, the margin with a dense border of short hairs. Lower pedicels 10-12 mm long. 45

    Leaves very different in form, gradually or abruptly attenuate into the petiole, with about 3 longitudinal nerves on each side. the margin without a dense border of short hairs. Lower pedicels up to 15 mm long. Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Philippines.
    1. N. alata

    34 Lid with stiff or more delicate hairs below. Upper pitchers widely infundibuliform. Leaves sessile with broad base, not decurrent. Malay Peninsula. 24. N. Macfarlanei

    Lid mostly not hairy below, when hairy, then the upper pitchers not widely infundibuliform. 35

    35 Lid ovate or narrowly ovate, cuneate or rounded at the base, mostly with filiform appendages on the upper surface and a bundle of such appendages on each side of the spur. Borneo. Selébès. 44. N. tentaculata

    Lid differently shaped, but not cuneate at the base and not filiform appendages on the upper surface. 36

    36 Leaves decurrent. 37

    Leaves not or only slightly decurrent 41

    37 Pitchers large and wide, up to 20 cm high or higher, up to 10 cm wide or wider, the lid at least 6 cm long. 38

    Pitchers small or medium-sized, the lower ones ovate to tubulose, the upper ones more tubulose, the lid at most 4 cm long. 39

    38 Plants non- or low-climbing. Leaves with 6-7 longitudinal nerves on each side, pitchers all of them ellipsoidal. Philippines. Selébès 26. N. Merrilliana

    Plant climbing, leaves with 4-6 longitudinal nerves on each side. Lower pitchers ovate-cylindrical, upper ones campanulate-infundibuliform. New Guinea. Fig. 11.
    20. N. insignis

    39 Lower pitchers mostly, upper pitchers always without wings and fringe. Peristome often indistinctly ribbed. Leaves with about 3 longitudinal nerves on each side. Lower pedicels 12-25 mm long, 2-flowered. Sumatra and Malay Peninsula to Borneo.
    39. N. Reinwardtiana

    Lower pitchers always, the upper ones often with fimbriate wings. Peristome always distinctly ribbed. Leaves with 4-7 longitudinal nerves on each side. Lower pedicels 3-10 mm long. 40

    40 Peristome cylindrical, 1/2-1 mm broad, the ribs 1/8-1/4 mm apart. Sumatra and Malay Peninsula to Selébès. 14. N. gracilis

    Peristome flattened, 1-2 1/2 mm broad, the ribs 1/4-2/3 mm apart. New Guinea to New Caledonia and the Isle of Pines. Fig. 26. 50. N. Vieillardii

    Peristome usually broader, the ribs 1/4-3 mm apart. Lower pedicels 2-flowered 49

    41 No dense red-brown indumentum on the stems, the leaves and the inflorescences. 42

    Young stems, lower surface of the leaves and inflorescences densely covered with red-brown hairs. Inflorescence seemingly lateral. Pedicels 1-flowered. Herbarium specimens yellowish-brown. Borneo. Fig. 8. 17. N. hirsuta

    see also 29. N. neglecta, Borneo.

    42 Upper pitchers widely infundibuliform, not more than 18 cm high. 43

    Upper pitchers not infundibuliform, or at most tubulose-infundibuliform. 44

    43 Lid broad-elliptical or suborbicular slightly cordate never with an appendage on the lower surface. Inflorescence small, seemingly lateral. Pedicels 1-flowered. Herbarium specimens mostly blackish. Sumatra. 5. N. Bongso

    Lid deeply cordate, often with an excrescence near the top. lnflorescence robust, not seemingly lateral. Herbarium specimens not blackish. Sumatra. Fig. 1.
    8. N. carunculata

    44 Peristome cylindrical or slightly flattened, not broader than 2 mm. 45

    Peristome flattened, often more than 2 mm broad. 46

    45 Leaves with 0-1 longitudinal nerves on each side, linear-lanceolate, sessile with narrow base. Sumatra. Fig. 23. 45. N. tobaica

    Leaves with 0-4 longitudinal nerves on each side. lanceolate-spathulate, sessile with broad base. Malay Peninsula. Fig. 7. 15. N. gracillima

    Leaves with 5 longitudinal nerves on each side, sessile with narrow base,
    obovate-lanceolate. Borneo. Fig. 13. 22. N. leptochila

    Leaves with 4-6 longitudinal nerves on each side, sessile with very narrow base,
    lanceolate. New Guinea. Fig. 16. 34. N. papuana

    Leaves with 3-6 longitudinal nerves on each side, lanceolate to spathulate or obovate. Inflorescence small, seemingly lateral. 48

    46 Upper pitchers long-tubulose-infundibuliform, pubescent. 47

    Upper pitchers smaller and more tubulose or more or less ventricose in the lower part. 48

    47 Inflorescence long and coarse, not seemingly lateral, not ferrugineous-hairy. Inner margin of the peristome nearly entire. Malay Peninsula. Fig. 20. 40. N. sanguinea

    Inflorescence rather small, seemingly lateral, densely ferrugineous-hairy. Inner margin of the peristome with teeth 3-5 x as long as broad. Sumatra. Fig. 21.
    42. N. spectabilis

    48 lnflorescences seemingly lateral, small. Lower pedicels 1-flowered. Sumatra.
    41. N. singalana

    Inflorescence robust, not seemingly lateral. Lower pedicels 2-flowered. 49

    49 Rosettes with short axis. Rosette-pitchers mostly ovate, upper pitchers tubulose
    in the lower part ventricose or not. Ribs of the peristome 1/4-1 mm apart, the
    teeth of the interior margin in the lower pitchers 3-6 x in the upper pitchers 1-3 x as long as broad, Java, Sumatra, Borneo. 16. N. gymnamphora

    Rosettes elongated. Rosette pitchers ellipsoidal, upper pitchers widely cylindrical, always ventricose. Ribs of the peristome 1/2-5 mm apart, the teeth of the inner margin 3-6 x as long as broad. Sumatra. Fig. 17. 33. N. pectinata

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