Herbaceous, insectivorous, glanduliferous annuals or perennials or a floating aquatic (Aldrovanda). Roots well developed or usually the true roots suppressed, parts of the stem becoming rhizoids, absent in Aldrovanda. Stems aerial, rhizomatous, tuberous or suppressed. Leaves basal, and rosulate and/or caulescent and alternate (verticillate in Aldrovanda); stipules intra-axillary , well developed, reduced or 0; vernation folded or circinnate: lamina simple or differentiated (Aldrovanda) covered with various types of glandular excrescences, viz. tentacles, sensitive bristles, stipitate and sessile glands. Inflorescence axillary or terminal, often scapose, cymose. Flowers bisexual, 5- (rarely 4- or multi-) merous, usually regular. Calyx-lobes connate at the base, imbricate, persistent. Petals free, imbricate, marcescent. Stamens usually 4 (4-20); filaments free (connate at the base in Dionaea), filiform or often dilated above; anthers extrorse, bilocular, opening by longitudinal slits; pollen forming tetrads. Ovary superior, carpels 3-5, unilocular, placentas parietal (sub-basal in Dionaea); ovules many, rarely few, anatropous; styles 3-5, usually free, rarely connate, simple or variously divided; stigmas apical. Capsule enclosed in the persistent calyx, usually thin-walled, dehiscing in 3 sections or rarely irregularly; seed albuminous.
A family of 4 genera, 3 of which are monotypic, vis. Drosophyllum from the Mediterranean region, Dionaea from North America and the widespread aquatic, Aldrovanda; and fourthly, Drosera with about 126 species is found predominantly in the southern hemisphere.
Works of general interest that are worth consulting: "Insectivorous Plants" by Charles Darwin, London (1875); and "Carnivorous Plants" by Francis E. Lloyd, Chronica Botanica 9 (1942).
Free floating aquatic without roots, lamina articulate............Aldrovanda Terrestrial plants rooting at the base, lamina not articulate........Drosera
Floating rootless herbs with the unbranched, horizontal, transparent stem just submerged, new parts developing apically with the older leaf whorls dying off successively from behind; occasionally the stem branching pseudo- dichotomously; forming turions in winter. Leaves 6-9 in a verticil, connate at the base, petiolar part broad, hollow, turgid, apically forming 4-6 subulate, ciliate segments; lamina reniform-rounded, articulate, with some long sensitive bristles inside near the midrib which causes the 2 lobes to close tightly when irritated; sessile, digestive glands also present. Flowers axillary, solitary, emergent, the robust peduncle reflexed in fruit, the capsule ripening below the surface of the water. Sepals 5, fused below, imbricate, ovate-elliptic. Petals 5, at first cohering to form a cap, white obovate. Stamens 5, with subulate filaments and didymous anthers. Ovary free, sessile, subglobose; styles 5, filiform, patent, incurved above, stigmatic apex dilated, much divided, penicillate. Capsule subglobose, membranous, 5-valved; seeds 6-8, shortly ovoid, black, crustaceous, shiny.
A monotypic genus, widely distributed in Europe, Asia, and Australia; recorded from scattered localities in Tropical Africa: in southern Africa collected once in Botswana, in fresh water. It is included because it is likely to occur within the Flora of Southern Africa region.. Fig. 27.- Aldrovanda vesiculosa, 1, habit, X4; 1a, flower (after Coste); 2, leaf, showing pedicel (p), five ciliate segments (s), opened lobes (l), with in the center the sensitive bristles (b), and sessile glands (g), remains of half-digested prey also visible, X 12 (Story 4787).
Aldrovanda vesiculosa L., Sp. Pl. 128 (1753); Drude in Pflanzenfam. 3, 2 : 269, fig. 161, F, fig. 165 (1891); Diels in Pflanzenr. 4, 112 : 59 (1906); Arber, Water Plants 111 (1920). Type : from Italy.
Description as for the genus. Fig. 27.
Leaves with the petiolar part 5-9 mm. long,subulate segments 2-6 mm. long, the folded lamina 5-7 mm. long, 8-10 mm. broad. Sepals 3-4 mm. long, 1-5 mm. broad Petals 4-5 mm. long, 2-5 mm. broad. Seeds 1-5 mm. long, 1 mm broad. (Measurements according to Diels.)
BOTSWANA.- Okavango swamps near 22 Deg. 30' E, 19 Deg. 5' S, Story 4787.
Drosera L., Sp. Pl. 281 (1753); Gen. Pl. ed. 5 : 136 (1754); Planch. in Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3, 9 : 192 (1848); Sond. in F.C. 1 : 75 (1860); Benth. & Hook.F., Gen. 1 : 662 (1856); Drude in Pflanzenfam. 3, 2 : 270 (1891); Diels in Pflanzenr. 4, 112 : 61 (1906); Phill., Gen. ed. 2 : 359 (1951). Type species: D. rotundifolia L.
Herbaceous, Insectivorous, glanduliferous annuals or deciduous perennials. Roots : true roots absent (suppressed during germination); from the stem axillary, positively geotropic shoots or pseudo-roots are formed which are few in number, become swollen with reserve foods and are densely covered (the tip excepted) with long "root hairs" . Stems aerial, rhizomatous or suppressed, annual or perennial (the apical tissues persisting as a turion). Leaves basal and rosulate and/or caulescent and alternate; stipules well developed, reduced, or absent, intera-axillary, membranous, often laciniate; vernation folded (viz. the apical part of the petiole is reflexed so that the upper face of the lamina touches the petiole) or circinnate with the blade rolled inwards; petioles present (often persistent and reflexed) or confluent with the lamina; lamina simple (in South African species) bearing various types of glandular excrescences, viz. 1, marginal tentacles: the apical laciniae of the lamina are transformed into long-tapered, movable, brittle tentacles bearing flattened glands at the apex which exude mucilage; these tentacles, are found on the juvenile spathulate leaves of certain rosulate species; 2, discal tentacles: these are scattered all over the the upper surface and consist of shorter to very short, usually terete, firm, movable red filaments, tipped with globose glands bearing a "collar" of cells at the base; these tentacles, also exude mucilage, are present on all species; 3, sessile and/or stipitate digestive glands filled with a red fluid; glandular pubescence is also abundantly present on the inflorescence. The tentacles react to (especially) chemical irritation, which causes chemonastic movements and in turn activate other glands to secrete enzymes and absorb the food. Inflorescence scapose, axillary or terminal (at least primarily), cymose helicoid or dichasial, often reduced to 1-2 flowers. Flowers usually opening one at a time in bright sunlight, sometimes for a few hours only, the cyme nodding beyond the open flower (vis. the buds are situated below the open flower); pollination often autogamous; cleistogamy has also been recorded for some species, the flowers remaining closed. Calyx 5-lobed (in South African species), lobes fused below, ovate, occasionally slightly dentate. Corolla of 5 free petals, usually obovate or spathulate, sometimes unguiculate, white, pink, purple, yellow, or red, with a dark base in some species, marcescent and coalescing to form a cap over the capsule. Stamens 5, free, the upper part of the filament and the connective often swollen dorsally, rhomboidal, causing the locules to diverge below ; anthers opening by longitudinal slits, extrorse, pollen forming tetrads. Ovary unilocular with 3 parietal placentas; ovules numerous, anatropous; styles 3, free, simple or often forked from the base, sometimes bifurcate or multifid at the stigmatic apex. Capsule loculicidally 3-valved (in South African species) enclosed in the persistent calyx; seed black, ovoid or fusiform with the outer integument extended on both sides, testa smooth, reticulate or warty.
A genus of about 126 species, widespread but with the greatest concentration in Australia. Eighteen species recognized in Southern Africa, 12 of these endemic in the winter-rainfall region, the remaining species with a tropical distribution. Inhabiting swamps (often together with Sphagnum) or on mountain slopes amongst the fynbos vegetation, choosing acid, mostly poor soil and areas which are often enveloped in mist.
Diels in his monograph adopted more or less Planchon's division of the genus into 3 sudgenera. The first, Drosera subgen. Drosera (subgen. Rorella DC.) contained nearly all the South African species except for two Cape species, D. pauciflora and D. cistiflora, which he relegated to subgen. Ptycnostigma Diels. To it D. alba must be added. The third subgenus Ergaleium is found in Australia and is characterized by the tuberous underground parts.
The species-sequence followed here is based on the tentacle-type present on the leaf, and on the habit, weather rosulate or caulescent. The first 7 species, all small and rosulate, possess a uniformly shaped leaf which bears two types of tentacles, the apical marginal tentacles, rather few in number and the numerous discal ones. The former are brittle and consequently often only the bases remain on herbarium specimens. It is thaught that they occur only on a juvenile type leaf.
The next three species appear to have in common a root-system showing several short swollen "roots", dimorphous leaves and a dark-centered corolla. The marginal tentacle is found on the basal, spathulate leaves but is absent from the narrower cauline leaves. Although D. pauciflora does not bear cauline leaves, it agrees in all other respects with the two other species placed in the subgenus Ptycnostigma of Diels. It seems to form a link with the following caulescent species, D. cistiflora; this species with its large flowers at times suppresses the basal rosette and thus links up with the Cape species D. hilaris, D. ramentacea, D. capensis and D. glaberipes. In all these and subsequent species the formation of a compact basal rosette and marginal tentacles with flattened glands, has been suppressed. The tropical species,D. madagascariensis, is also closely related to this last group of Cape species. The caulescent growth form seems to be an adaptation to the environment. These species get covered by the surrounding vegetation during their dormant period. When growth is resumed the stems elongate to reach the light. If exposed to the sun from the start they remain short.
The tropical D. indica, a rare, ephemeral invader from the North has no close relatives in southern Africa. When the rains fall, the seed germinates and in a few months the plant grows and flowers and sets seeds which in turn await the next rainy season. D. regia, known only from one montane locality near Worcester in the Cape, also stands apart because of its robust rhizome, its large size and undivided styles.
Diels draws attention to some interesting characters the genus exhibits in common with other aquatics, for instance the early suppression of the primary root in the germinating embryo, the intra-axillary stipules, common in the Helobiae, the secretion of mucilage and the structure of the leaf; no distinct palissade layer is, formed but there is much lacunar tissue and the epidermis contains chlorophyll.
Droseras show a remarkable capacity for regeneration, not only from dormant, adventitious buds but also from injured, vegetative tissues from any part of the rhizome, stem or leaf.
That the ingestion of nitrogenous material, as well as mineral salts, can take place through the leaves has been proved and it has also been found to be beneficial, enhancing especially seed production.
Common names: Sundew, Sondou, Doublom.
a Perennials, deciduous from a swollen persistent rhizome: b Styles divided, forming 6-12 branches: c Leaves uniform in shape, in a compact rosette, with the scape leafless; leaf-apex rounded, laciniate, ending in c. 7-10 long tapered marginal tentacles tipped with flattened glands and with numerous shorter terete tentacles, tipped with knob-shaped glands, which are scattered over the lamina: Petals up to 8 mm. long: Leaves apetiolate: Scape absent, flower sessile or nearly so, in the center of the rosette ........................................ 1. D. acaulis Scape well developed: Stipules consisting of 2 small deciduous setae; small plants with the leaves variable in size; scape central, straight, 1-5 (-10) flowered; petals usually white; south-western Cape .............................................. 2. D. trinervia Stipules laciniate, auriculate; plants usually larger, scapes curved below, few to many flowered; petals usually magenta; summer-rainfall region (except D. aliciae): Style-arms bifid or trifid; seed fusiform with the testa extended on both sides: Rosette compact, flat, the old leaves persisting below; blade coriaceous, usually reddish, densely covered with tentacles; south-western to south-eastern Cape......... ............................................ 3. D. aliciae Rosette lax, old leaves not long persistent; blade thin, sparsely covered with tentacles; eastern Cape, Natal, Transvaal ............................... 4. D. natalensis Style arms entire, spoon-shaped; seed ovoid; small compact, hairy plants; eastern escarpment from Natal to Transvaal and further north ....... .................. 5. D. dielsiana Leaves petiolate; seeds ovoid: Plants forming flat rosettes, petioles about 1-5 cm. long... ................................................... 6. D. burkeana Plants with the leaves erect or spreading, with petioles up to 5 cm. long ...................................... 7. D. collinsiae Petals over 8 mm. long: Leaves cuneate; petals without a basal blotch, stigmas spoon-shaped; recorded only from Table mountain ................. 8. D. cuneifolia Leaves obovate; petals with a dark basal blotch, stigmas flabellate- multifid; central south-western districts ......... 9. D. pauciflora cc Leaves dimorphous with the basal rosulate ones bearing both the marginal flattened tentacles and the terete knob-shaped ones; the upper leaves narrower bearing only the knob-shaped tentacles; or leaves uniform when the basal leaf-type with its marginal is suppressed; plants usually with a leafy stem, the younger leaves aggregated towards the apex; scape axillary and leafless or terminal and then leafy below: Leaves dimorphous, the lower rosulate, broader, with both types of tentacles, the upper narrower, with knob-shaped tentacles only; scape terminal: Upper leaves lanceolate to linear; petals to 20 mm. long, with a dark base ................................... 10. D. cistiflora Upper leaves narrowly linear, aggregated above primary rosette; petals up to 10 mm. long, without a dark base; delicate herbs ................................................. 11. D. alba Leaves uniform, bearing only the knob-shaped tentacles; plants usually caulescent; scape terminal or axillary: Stipules 0; leaves sessile; scape terminal ..... 10. D. cistiflora Stipules present, conspicuous (inconspicuous in D. hilaris); leaves petiolate with the petiole decurrent or distinct; scape axillary: Leaf-blade confluent with the petiole, narrow-lanceolate; stipules setaceous, hidden amongst the rusty woolly pubescence ................................. 12. D. hilaris Leaf-blade distinct from the petiole; stipules conspicuous, entire or dissected: Cyme branched ............................ 13. D. ramentacea Cyme simple, helicoid: Coarse woody plants with erect racemes; south-western Cape: Leaves oar-shaped, up to 15 cm. long; stipules entire. ovate, acute ......................... 14. D. capensis Leaves ovoid to spathulate, up to 3 cm. long; stipules dissected ........................... 15. D. glabripes Slender herbs with the scapes sharply curved at the base; summer-rainfall region ........... 16. D. madagascariensis bb Styles 3, undivided; Cape ..................... 17. D. regia aa Annuals; delicate herbs with linear leaves, laxly arranged on their stems; Transvaal ................................ 18. D. indica
1. Drosera acaulis L.f.. Suppl. 188 (1781); Willd., Sp. Pl. 1, 2 : 1543 (1798). Type: Cape, Ceres district. Koude Bokkevld, beyond Elandskloof. Thunberg (S. holo.; UPS; PRE. photo.).
D. acaulis Thunb., Prodr. 57 (1794); Diss. ii, 406 (1800); Fl. Cap. ed. Schult. 278 (1823); Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 6 : 759 (1820); Planch. in Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3, 9 : 303 (1848); Hamet in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 54 : 31 (1907). Type : as for D. acaulis L.f. D. pauciflora var. acaulis (Thunb.)Sound. in F.C. 1 : 78 (1860); Diels in Pflanzenr. 4, 112 : 109 (1906).
Dwarf, rosulate herbs with 1-2 thin roots. Leaves c. 8, apetiolate, exstipulate, unequal in length, lamina narrowly spathulate, c. 7 mm. long, 2 mm. wide bearing both types of tentacles, otherwise glabrous, Flower solitary on a pedicel-2 mm. long, glandular pubescent. Calyx lobes c. 3 mm. long. Petals obovate, c. 6mm. long red or purple. Stamens with terete filaments, the connective not rhomboidal. Styles forked from the base, stigmatic apex flabellately multifid. Fig. 28:1
Known only from the type locality and collections on or near the Matroosberg at altitudes of over 1,800 metres. Flowering December.
CAPE.-Worcester : Matroosberg, in moist places, Marloth 2268; Keeromsberg, summit, Esterhuysen 9312 (bol).
2. Drosera trinervia
2. Drosera trinervia Spreng., Neue ent- deck. 1 : 298 (1820); Syst.
Veg. 1 : 954 (1825); Sond. in F.C. 1 : 76 (1860); Diels in Pflanzenr. 4,
112 : 91 (1906); Salter in Fl. Cape Penins. 426 (1950). Syntypes: Cape,
Thunberg 7708; 7710 (UPS).
D. cuneifolia vars a and c Thunb., Diss. 2 : 406 (1800); Fl. Cap. ed. Schult. 278 (1823). Types : var. a, Thunberg 7708 (UPS); var. c, Thunberg 7710 (UPS).
Small herbs with tufted rosettes bearing 1-2 fairly long, slightly swollen roots. Leaves apetiolate; stipules represented by 2 minute filaments, one on each side of the margin at the base, deciduous; lamina obcuneate, c. 1 cm. long ad 5 mm. broad, tapered below, truncate at the apex, the marginal apical tentacles with flattened glands much larger than the discal tentacles, lower surface glabrous or glabrescent, 3-nerved. Inflorescence central, scape erect, 5-10 cm. long, occasionally somewhat longer, with usually 2-3 (1-10) flowers fairly close together; pedicels 1-8 mm. long. Calyx-lobes 5 mm. long. Petals white or rarely violet, broadly obovate- cuneate, c. 8 mm. long, when faded forming a subulate body just exserted from the globose calyx. Stamens on slender filaments with the connective dilated. Styles 3, divided from the base, patent-erect, stigmas capillaceo-multifid. Capsule oblong; seeds ovoid, 0.3 mm., punctulate, blackish brown. Fig. 28:2
Confined to the south-western Cape; one of the commonest species, found usually in damp, peaty, exposed habitats on flats and slopes amongst fynbos vegetation. Flowering August-November.
CAPE.-Caledon : Palmiet River, Gillett 4230; near Caledon, Schlechter 5572; Zwartberg, Galpin 4028, Calvinia : Lokenburg, Acocks 17046; Boklandskloof, Acocks 19753. Ceres : Gydouw near Ceres, Leipoldt 4048. Clanwilliam : Cedarberg, Thode A1998. Ladismith : Sevenweeks Poort Mountains, Andreae 1205. Paarl : Du Toits Pass, Werdermann & Oberdieck 725. Peninsula : Table Mountain, Kasteelpoort, MacOwan 80; Simonstown, Taylor 596; Kirstenbosch, Guthrie sub BOL 18358. Piketberg : Piketberg, Zeyher 53. Somerset West : Sir Lowry's Pass, Werdermann & Oberdieck 174. Stellenbosch : Jonkershoek, Taylor 1493. Swellendam : National Bontebok Park, Liebenberg 6380.
A collection from the Ceres district, east slope of the Witzenberg, Pillans 9734 (BOL), was tentatively placed in this taxon by Salter since it has the 2 small lateral stipules. It seems to be a very large form of this species with all parts equally enlarged.
In the early stages in the development of the leaf the stipules
develop normally but growth is soon arrested (cf Diels, in Pflanzenr. 4,
112 : 12, 1906).
3. Drosera aliciae
3. Drosera aliciae Hamet in J. Bot. France 19 : 114 (1905); Bull. Soc. Bot. France 54 : 15, t.2, fig. 13 (1907), excl. synonym. Type: Cape, Herb. Hamet (BM, holo.; PRE, photo).
D. curviscapa Salter in J.S. Afr. Bot. 5 : 158 (1939); Fl. Cape Penins. 426 (1950); Batten & Bokelmann, Wild Flows. E. Cape 139, t.111, 1 (1966). Type : Cape Peninsula, near Smith's farm, Salter 8277 (BOL, holo.). -var. esterhuysenae Salter in J. S. Afr. Bot. 10 : 60 (1944). Type: Caledon-Stellenbosch border, Hottentots-Holland Mountains, Esterhuysen 9802 (BOL, holo.!).
Small plants with tufted, compact rosettes and a few fairly thin, long roots. Leaves apetiolate; stipules ovate, 3-cleft, up to 5 mm. long, the central lobe lanceolate, the outer linear-setaceous; the c. 30 leaves often reddish, similar in size, compactly arranged, the old leaves forming a thick mat below; lamina obcuneate to spathulate, up to 25 mm. long and 7 mm. broad near the obtuse to truncate apex, base cuneate, bearing both types of tentacles; lower surface appressed-pubescent. Inflorescence with the base of each scape exserted horizontally from the leafs rosette, subsequently erect, 15-40 cm. tall-firm, bearing 2-12 secund flowers; pedicel, up to 8 mm. long. Calyx-lobes c. 5 mm. long, broadly ovate, obtuse. Petals broadly obovate-cuneate, c. 10 mm. long purple. Stamens with the filaments flattened and the connective dilated. Styles forked from the base, the branches shortly 2-3-fid and dilated at the stigmatic apex. Capsule ovoid; seeds fusiform, with the testa extended on both sides. Fig. 28 : 7.
Common in the South-western Cape, extending to the eastern Cape. A marsh plant which is also found in damp peaty areas. Flowering December-January.
CAPE.-Albany : Howieson's Poort near Grahamstown, Dyer 183. Caledon : near Palmiet River mouth, Esterhuysen 12593; Koude River near Elim, Schlechter 9736. Hermanus : Vo‰lklip near Hermanus, Bruyn 182. Humansdorp : Elandsbos River, Acocks 21488. Peninsula : Table Mountain; Orange Kloof, Disa George, L. Bolus s.n. Riversdale: Kampscheberg, Muir 3545. Stellenbosch : Viljoens Pass, Hafstr”m & Acocks 544. Swellendam : Zuurbraak, Schlechter 2113. Uniondale : Prince Alfred's Pass, southern side near top, Acocks 19949.
It is closely related to D. natalensis and it is sometimes
difficult to distinguish them in the eastern Cape where their ranges
overlap; D. aliciae is a more compact plant and has the stipules 3-cleft
whereas in D. natalensis the plant usually adopts a more lax habit and
the stipules are irregularly fimbriate.
4. Drosera natalensis
4. Drosera natalensis Diels in Pflanzenr. 4, 112 : 93 (1906); Burtt Davy, Fl. Transv. 1 : 146 (1926), pro parte; Exell & Laundon in Bol. Soc. Brot. 30 : 216 (1956). Type: Natal, Clairmont near Durban, Wood 4901 (B, holo.!; PRE, photo.).
Plants small with the basal rosulate leaves inserted close together on a very short ascending stem, giving it a straggling appearance. Roots several, fairly thin and long. Leaves apetiolate, stipules fused to the lamina at the base, free part entire below, fimbriate above, ferruginous, 2 mm. long; lamina cuneate to spathulate, rounded at the apex, tapered and slightly hairy towards the base, up to about 2 cm. long and 5 mm. broad above, bearing both types of tentacles, texture usually soft and thin. Inflorescence borne on a wiry scape, elongating during anthesis, up to 25 cm. long, the base straight or some what curved, glabrous or with a few straggling hairs below; pedicels up to 5 mm. long; flowers small, up to about 10, secund, rarely open. Calyx-lobes ovate, 3 mm. long. Petals white pink or purple, 5 mm. long. Stamens with the upper part of the filament and connective dilated. Styles forked from the base and divided again towards the apex, the stigmatic apex somewhat distended. Capsule oblong; seed fusiform, the testa extended on both sides. Fig. 28 : 6.
Found in the eastern Cape, Natal and Transvaal, and said to occur in the Malagasy Republic; in swampy areas. Flowering during the summer months.
CAPE.-Bizana : Umtamvuna Waterfall, Stery 4462. Lusikisiki : Mkambati Leper Institute, Marais 1190. Stutterheim : Gazella-Glen Avon, Acocks 9457.
NATAL.-Bergville : Cathkin Park, Umswazini Valley, Galpin 11737; Cathedral Peak Forest Research Station, vlei in Catchment Area I,, Killick 1230. Durban : Merebank East, Ward 5126. Hlabisa : W. of Charter's Creek, Ward 2865. Lower Tugela : Groutville, Moll 2539. Port Shepstone : Beacon Hill East, Strey 6923, 6924.
TRANSVAAL.-Belfast : Belfast, Leendertz 2931. Letaba : Woodbush, Mogg 14697. Sibasa : Pepiti Waterfall, Obermeyer sub TRV 31647. Pietersburg : Mohlakeng Plateau, Blouberg, Codd & Dyer 9146.
The majority of the flowers on a plant growing at the Botanical
Research Institute never opened but seed was formed. Only once did one open
for an hour. Dr. A. Kress of Munich, Germany, reported irregular behaviour
of the chromosomes. So here too, possible hybrid influence is suspected.
5. Drosera dielsiana
5. Drosera dielsiana Exell & Laundon in Bol. Soc. Brot. 30 : 214 (1956). Type : Transvaal, Lydenburg district, near Spitskop, Wilms 35 (BM, holo.).
Small, hairy herbs with compact, basal rosettes and a few fairly long thin roots. Leaves 15-25, the old leaves soon disintegrating, apetiolate; stipules small, fimbriate, auriculate; lamina spathulate, up to 2 cm. long, 6 mm. broad above, apex rounded, tapered below into a broad, hairy petiolar part; both types of tentacles present; lower surface sparsely hairy. Inflorescence with the scape leafless, sturdy, straight or rarely somewhat curved below, 10-20 cm. long, hairy near the base; usually about 8-flowered (3-12) with the rhachis erect; flowers secund, small, seldom open according to collectors; pedicels 2 mm. Calyx-lobes c. 5 mm. long. Petals obovate, unguiculate, c. 7 mm. long, pink, mauve, violet or white. Stamens with narrowly winged filaments. Styles forked from the base with the stigmatic apex spoon-shaped, membranous. Capsule oblong, 5 mm.; seeds ovoid, 0.4 mm. black, honeycombed. Fig. 28:5
Found on the escarpment in the eastern Transvaal, in Swaziland and northern Natal and further northwards in southern tropical Africa, apparently on mountain plateaux. Flowering during the summer months.
NATAL.-Utrecht : Naauwhoek near Utrecht, Devenish 978.
SWAZILAND.-Mbabane : Nduma, Compton 25381
TRANSVAAL.-Barberton : Godwan River, Berlin, Hofmeyer sub PRE 15280. Letaba : The Downs, Junod 4427. Lydenberg : Steenkampsberg, 15 kilometres E. of Draaikraal, Strey 3031; Mount Anderson, Strey 3536; Galpin 13738; Prosser 1796. Pilgrim's Rest : Mariepskop, Van der Schijf 4544; Meeuse 9954.
Since the flowers seldom open, it is possibly an apmoict.
6. Drosera burkeana
6. Drosera burkeana Planch. in Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3, 9 : 192 (1848); Sond. in F.C. 1 : 76 (1860); Oliv. in F.T.A. 2 : 402 (1871); Diels in Pflanzenr. 4, 112 : 88 (1906); Hamet in Bull. Soc. France, 54 : 24 (1907); Burtt Davy, Fl. Transv. 1 : 146, fig. 15, excluding seed (1926); Exell & Laundon in Bol. Soc. Brot. 30 : 217, 218, t.2 (1956); Laundon in F.T.E.A. Droseraceae : 2, fig. 1 (1959). Type : Transvaal, Magaliesberg, Burke (K, holo.; S; PRE, photo.).
Small herbs with tufted rosettes and a few thin, fairly long roots. Leaves with a petiole about as long as the lamina, c. 1 cm, terete, somewhat hairy; stipules entire below, lanciniate above, rust coloured; lamina obovate to spathulate, c. 1 cm. long, bearing both types of tentacles; lower surface glaberescent. Inflorescence with the wiry scape erect or somewhat curved below, 5-20 cm. long, 3-10 flowered with the small flowers close together. Calyx-lobes ovate; 4 mm. long. Petals obovate, shortly clawed, c. 5 mm. long. Stamens with thin, flattened filaments, connective slightly dilated. Styles divided from the base, curved upwards, the stigmatic apical part spoon- shaped, membranous. Capsule oblong, 3 mm; seeds ovoid, c. 0.5 mm, black. Fig. 28:3
Recorded from the Transvaal and further northwards to tropical Africa and Madagascar Island; a swamp species. Flowering during the summer months.
SWAZILAND.-Mbabane : Hill N.E. of Mbabane, Compton 25344; swamp, Poliniane River, Compton 27145.
TRANSVAAL.-Bronkhorstspruit : Premier Mine area, swamp ground, Repton
1322. Heidelberg : Heidelberg, Leendertz sub TRV 3679. Johannesburg : Canada
Junction, Moss & Rogers 1810. Letaba : Duiwelskloof, Scheepers 1004.
Middelburg : Nebo, north of Middelburg, Rogers 24851. Nelspruit : Rooiwal,
Bosman s.n. Nylstroom : Geelhoutkop, Breyer sub TRV 17791. Pretoria :
Swartspruit, Pole Evans 389.
7. Drosera collinsiae
7. Drosera collinsiae N.E.Br. ex Burtt Davy in Kew Bull. 1924 : 231 (1924); Burtt Davy, Fl. Transv. 1 : 146 (1926); Exell & Laundon in Bol. Soc. Brot. 30 : 217 (1956). Type : Transvaal, Rustenburg Kloof, Collins 127 (K, holo.!; PRE!).
Herbs forming a lax basal rosette with the 1-2 roots swollen towards the tip. Leaves with a petiole up to 4 cm. long, thin, glabrous; stipules fused to the petiole below, auriculate fimbriate above, c. 2 mm; lamina obovate to spathulate, c. 12 mm. long, 8 mm. broad, with both types of tentacles, lower surface glabrous. Inflorescence up to 17 cm. long, usually shorter, with the thin scape erect from the base, 2-7 flowered, with small secund flowers, on filiform pedicels up to 17 mm. long. Calyx-lobes ovate, 3 mm. long. Petals pink, obovate, c. 6 mm. long. Stamens with the filaments slightly dilated above. Styles forked from the base with the stigmas spoon- shaped. Capsule globose, 1.5 mm. in diam., seeds ovoid, reticulate. Fig. 28:4
In swampy areas in the Transvaal, Natal, Lesotho and Orange Free State. Flowering during the summer months.
LESOTHO.- Marakabies : Leribe, Dieterlen 742b.
O. F. S.- Fouriesburg : Mount Morkel 18 Kilometers from Fouriesburg, Repton 6508.
NATAL.- Utrecht : Pongola Mountains to Kaffir Drift, Thode A319.
Transvaal.- Carolina : Mavieriestad, Pott 6095. Rustenburg : Rustenburg Kloof, Lanham 59.
Exell and Laundon suggest that it might be a hybrid between
D. burkeana and D. madagascariensis for it appears to possess intermediate
8. Drosera cuneifolia
8. Drosera cuneifolia L.f., Suppl. 188 (1781); Thunb., Fl. Cap. ed. Schult. 278 (1823), pro parte; Diels in Pflanzenr. 4, 112 : 90 (1906); Marloth, Fl. S. Afr. 2, 2 : 192, t.66, fig. d (1925); Salter in Fl. Cape Penins. 426 (1950). Type: Cape, Thunberg (LINN 398.1, holo.; PRE, photo.).
D. cuneifolia Thunb., Prodr. 57 (1794); Sond. in F.C. 1 : 76 (1860). -var. B, Thunb., Diss. 2 : 406 (1800). Type: Cape, Thunberg 7709 (UPS).
Small to somewhat larger, rosulate herbs with 1-2 long roots. Leaves with the petiole confluent with the lamina; stipules concave, ovate, c. 3 mm. long entire below, laciniate above, rosy brown; lamina cuneate, up to 3 cm. long and 15 cm. broad at the truncate apex, green, 3-5 nerved; discal tentacles very dense along the margin; outer leaves smaller, older leaves glaberescent below, young buds hairy. Inflorescence central, straight, variable in length, usually about 15 cm. long, 6-20 flowered, pedicels up to 6 mm. long. Calyx-lobes ovate, 5 mm. long, obtuse. Petals broadly obovate- cuneate, up to 12 mm. long, pink to reddish purple ("bright red with a touch of magenta," Marloth), when faded, forming a falcate, rod-shaped body exserted from the open calyx. Stamens with short filaments, the locules separated by the swollen connective. Styles divided from the base, stigmas spoon shaped. Capsule with black, fusiform seeds. Fig. 28:8
Apparently confined to the Table Mountain complex. Flowering November-January.
CAPE.-Peninsula : Table Mountain, Burchell 599; Rodin 3206; Constantiaberg, Salter 8021; Rooihoogte near Smitswinkel, Salter 8480A (BOL).. Fig. 28. Leaves of South African Drosera species showing shape, types of tentacles and stipules; all X 1, except where otherwise stated; where known the seeds are also depicted. 1, D. acaulis, 2, D. trinervia, seed, X 20. 3, D. burkeana, seed, X 20. 4, D. collinsiae, seed, X 20. 5, D. dielsiana, seed, X 15. 6, D. natalensis, seed, X 10. 7, D. aliciae, seed, X 10. 8, D. cuneifolia, seed, X 10. 9, D. pauciflora, showing petal with basal blotch. 10, D. alba, showing a, rosulate, spathulate leaf and b, linear upper leaf. 11, D. cistiflora, showing a, rosulate leaf, b, cauline leaf, c, petal with basal blotch. 12, D. hilaris, seed, X 10. 13, D. ramentacea, seed, X 20. 14, D. capensis, seed X 10. 15, D. glabripes, seed, X 6. 16, D. madagascariensis, seed, X 20 17, D. regia, seed (immature), X 10. 18, D. indica, seed, X10.
9. Drosera pauciflora Banks ex DC., Prodr. 1 : 317 (1824); Sond. in F.C. 1 : 78 (1860); Diels in Pflanzenr. 4, 112 : 108, fig. 35, E, F (1906); Marloth, Fl. S. Afr. 2, 2 : 192, t.66, fig. A (1925); Salter in J. S. Afr. Bot. 6 : 168, fig. 2 (1940). Type : South Africa, Cap. bonae spei, Auge (BM, holo.; PRE, photo.).
D. grandiflora Bartl. in Linnaea 7 : 620 (1832), Type : Cape, without locality, anno 1829, Ecklon (S, holo.!; PRE. photo.). D acaulis sensu Hamet in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 54 : 31 (1907).
Plants forming tufted, compact rosettes with 1-few, fairly short, swollen roots. Leaves apetiolate, exstipulate; lamina spreading, narrowly obovate, up to 25 mm. long and 8 mm. broad above, attenuated towards the base, bearing both types of tentacles. Inflorescence with 1-3 large flowers; scape leafless, erect, up to 20 cm. long. Calyx-lobes ovate, up to 1 cm. long. Petals broadly obovate, up to 3 cm. long, pink or mauve with the base deep olive green. Stamens short with the filaments somewhat dilated above, connective rhomboidal with the locules diverging at the base. Styles bifid from the base with the stigmatic apex flabellately divided (fused when immature). Capsule and seed not seen. Fig. 28:9
South-western Cape, in the fynbos vegetation; common around Darling, Paarl and Stellenbosch. Flowering August November.
CAPE,- Malmesbury : at the turn-off to Ganskraal, Kies 115 (NBG); Between Malmesbury and Groenekloof (Mamre), Bolus 4278 (BOL); Mamre Hills, Compton 13769 (NBG). Paarl : L'Ormarins, southern Paarl, Roberts sub TRV 25100; Paarl, Hutchinson 454; Drege 2757. Piketberg : Farm Mouton Valley, Levant Mountain, Marloth 11511. Stellenbosch : Onderpapegaaisberg, Taylor 5033; Jonkershoek, Jakkalsvlei, Taylor 3694.
In the Stockholm Herbarium is an Ecklon specimen labelled "Drosera
grandiflora Bartling, loc. nat. ignotus, anno 1829", which is presumably the
Holotype. It is a synonym of D. pauciflora Banks ex DC. and matches, for
instance, Drege 7257. Most of the specimens subsequently distributed by
Ecklon and Zeyher as "D. grandiflora Bartl." No. 1920 (128 of their list)
from Caledon, are here classified as D. cistiflora L. Salter observed that
they differed from D. pauciflora and described them as D. zeyheri, but, since
he quoted D. grandiflora Bartl. as a synonym, his name becomes superflous.
However, this Ecklon & Zeyher collection is not identical with the type of
D. grandiflora and, as Salter himself suggested, is more closely related to
D. cistiflora, a variable, widespread and common species. So far
D. pauciflora has not been recorded from the Caledon area. Therefore I doubt
whether the sheet in the Stockholm herbarium, with two specimens of
D. pauciflora, bears the correct label, viz. Ecklon & Zeyher 128 from
10. Drosera cistiflora
10. Drosera cistiflora L., Amoen. Acad. 6 : 85 (1760); Sp. Pl. ed. 2 : 403 (1762); Thunb., Fl. Cap. ed. Schult. 279 (1823); Sond. in F.C. 1: 78 1860); Hook. in Bot. Mag. t. 7100 (1890); Diels in Pflanzenr. 4, 112 : 106, fig. 35 A-D (1906), including varieties; Marloth, Fl. S. Afr. 2, 2 : 191, t.66, fig. B, C (1925); Salter in Fl. Cape Penins. 426 (1950); Rice & Compton, Wild Flow. Cape Good Hope t.52(2), t.53(2) (1950); Batten & Bokelmann, Wild Flow. E. Cape 139, t.111, 2 (1966) Type: Cape, Thunberg (LINN 398.6, holo.; PRE, photo.).
D. speciosa Presl, Bot. Bemerk, 14 (1844). Type; Cape, Drege s.n. an D. cistiflora b. E. Mey. in coll. Drege (K, iso.!). D. helianthemum Planch. in Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3, 9 : 203 (1848). Type: Cape, Caledon, Kleinerivierskloof, Ecklon "129" (CGG, holo.; M, S!, PRE, photo.). D. pauciflora Banks ex DC. var. minor Sond. in F.C. 1 : 78 (1860). Type Caledon, Zeyher 1920 ex parte (S, holo.; M; PRE!). D. zeyheri Salter in J. S. Bot. 6 : 168 (1940), nom. illegit. Type: as for D. pauciflora var. minor above (BOL, holo.!; PRE).
Slender, usually caulescent herbs 10-40 cm high, variable, the basal rosette absent at times. Roots 1-2, long, swollen, densely matted with roothairs. Stems (often reduced to scapes) unbranched, densely glandular pubescent. Leaves apetiolate (occasionally with an ill-defined sulcate petiole), exstipulate, dimorphous; primary leaves basal, rosulate, narrowly obovate, 12-20 (-30) mm long, base attenuate, bearing both types of tentacles; cauline leaves laxly spaced, alternate, linear to linear- lanceolate, 2-4 cm. long, 1-4 mm broad, apex acute, with some very long knob-bearing tentacles at the apex and along the upper margin and with numerous shorter ones. Inflorescence terminal, 1-several- flowered, in thin pedicels up to three cm. Calyx-lobes acute, about 9 mm. long. Petals broadly obovate, up to 2 cm. long, notched at the apex, white, yellow, mauve, pink, purple, dark red (Malmesbury district), with a dark green base. Stamens with short dark green filaments, connective rhomboid with the locules diverging. Styles divided from the base, long, patent-erect, apical stigmatic areas flabellately multifid. Capsule turbinate; seeds ovoid-ellipsoid, brown, minutely honeycombed. Fig. 28:11
Widespread and common in the Cape winter rainfall region from Namaqualand to port Elizabeth; on hill slopes and flats in moist sandy fynbos areas and in clearings. Flowering August-September.
CAPE-Bredasdrop : Brandfontein, Smith 3103. Caledon : Caledon, Zeyher s.n.; Palmiet River, Gillett 4233; Kogelbay, Werdermann & Oberdieck 285. Calvinia : Lokenburg, Acocks 17258. Clanwilliam : Cedarberg, Algeria Forest Station, Galpin 10529; Barnes sub BOL 19317; between Graafwater and Clanwilliam, Hardy & Bayliss 1025. Hermanus : Hermanus, Rogers 26516, Hopefield : Schlechter 5298. Humansdrop : Kruisfontein near Humansdrop, Galpin 4032; near Storms River, Story 2844; Clarkson, Thode A833. Knysna : Brackenfels turn-off, 12 kilometres E. of Knysna in clearing beside road, Mauve 4606. Kentani : Pegler 2065. Malmesbury : Ysterfontein Botanical Reserve, Baker 3841 (NBG), with scarlet flowers. Peninsula : Silvermine, Werdermann & Oberdieck 82; near Cape Town, in moist sand, Bolus 4489; Lions Rump, Marloth 186; at the foot of Table Mountain, Ecklon 251. Port Elizabeth : near Port Elizabeth, west Towards Witteklip, Rodin 1012. Riversdale : Langeberg, Muir 2948; Vet River near Riversdale, Muir 448; 2370. Stellenbosch : French Hoek, Sidey 1856; northern entrance, French Hoek Pass, Story 3035. Swellendam : Rhenoster hills N. of town, Marloth 12951. Tulbagh : 3 kilometres W. of Tulbagh, Baker 9226 (NBG). Wellington : Wellington in veld, Lewis Grant 2491. Worcester : Hex River Mountains, S.E. slopes of Prospect Peak, Esterhuysen 15940.
Apparently plants developed different growth forms depending, possibly, on light requirements. Diels discusses this phenomenon, observed in European and Australian species, where the stems lengthen and become well developed and leafy after the dormant plants had been hidden under Sphagnum and other vegetation during the dry season. On the other hand, when light was sufficient from the start, the basal rosette enlarges but the stem remains short, develops few leaves and forms only a scape bearing 1-few apical flowers. Several varieties were established by Diels but the abundant material now available shows no sharply defined forms. Like D. trinervia, this species invades clearings, being equally at home in the fynbos vegetation and open road verges.
The taxon described by Salter as D. zeyheri and by Diels as D. pauciflora var. minor is considered to be a form of D. cistiflora. It appears in open places recently cleared or burnt. Diels' variety exilis appears to be similar. See also notes under D. pauciflora.
The species was illustrated in Burman's book, Rariorum Africanarum
Plantarum on tab. 75, p. 210 (1738), under the phrase-name Drosera foliis
ad caulem alternis flore amplo purpureo. Together with D. capensis, depicted
on the same plate, these two species were the first Cape Droseras to be
recorded and illustrated.
11. Drosera alba
11. Drosera alba Phill. in Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 9 : 105 (1913). Type : Cape Vanrhynsdrop, Gifberg Range, Phillips 7565 (SAM, holo.; K.).
Slender small herbs with several short, swollen roots. Leaves apetiolate, exstipulate, dimorphous, laxly arranged, primary leaves rosulate, spreading flat on the ground, oblanceolate, 1-2 cm. long, 4 mm. broad, with flattened marginal and knob-shaped tentacles; secondary leaves erect, narrowly linear, c. 5 cm. long, 1.5 mm. broad, apex obtuse, with long (up to 5 mm.) Knob-shaped tentacles only, aggregated above the basal rosette. Inflorescence with a central, leafless slender scape up to 13 cm.ong, 1-several-flowered; pedicels up to 2 cm. long. Calyx-lobes ovate, 3 mm. long. Petals broadly obovate, 7-10 mm. long, white or mauve. Stamens short, with the connective rhomboid. Styles divided from the base with the stigmatic apices flabellately multifid or rarely remaining fused (when immature). Capsule ovoid; seed ovoid. Fig. 28:10
Known only from the Vanrhynsdrop, Clanwilliam and Calvinia districts, Cape Province, Flowering in April- May; August-October. Near D. cistiflora L.
CAPE.- Calvinia : Lokenburg, Acocks 17269. Clanwilliam : Pakhuis Pass, Compton 9847. Piketberg : Gifberg, Marloth 2649; Driekoppen, Esterhuysen 30744 (BOL).
What appears to be a form of this species has been collected on several occasions in Kamiesberg and Cedarberg. The flowers are similar to D. alba but the basal leaves differ from the typical form in that they are petiolate or at least tapered below, thus giving the rosette a somewhat straggling appearance. The upper linear leaves are absent. Taking into consideration the vegetative variation in the closely related D. cistiflora, it seemed prudent to regard it for the present as a form of D. alba. The following collections belong to this form:
CAPE,- Namaqualand : Cedarberg, Scorpion's Poort, Pocock 834 (STE);
Cedarberg eastern range, east of Matjies River, Thode 5750 (STE); Kamiesberg,
Stokoe sub Marloth 13729; pass from the Garies to Leliefontein, Esterhuysen
1374 (BOL); De Kom (now farm Karas), 5 kilometres from Leliefontein in the
Kamiesberg, Leipoldt 3403. Vanrhynsdrop : Nieuwoudtville, Oorlogskloof,
Barker s.n. (BOL).
12. Drosera hilaris
12. Drosera hilaris Cham. & Schlechtd. in Linnaea 1 : 548 (1826); Sond. in F.C. 1 : 77 (1860); Diels in Pflanzenr. 4, 112 : 99 (1906); Salter in Fl. Cape Penins. 427 (1950); Rice & Compton, Wild Flow. Cape Good Hope t.53 (1) (1950). Type: Cape, Constantia, Bergius (B?).
Fairly robust herbs forming an upright, unbranched stem from a decumbent older part. Roots apparently poorly developed at the time of flowering. Older part of the stem densely covered by the reflexed persistent leaf remains. Leaves rosulate or closely imbricate with the petiole confluent with the lamina, hairy; stipules suppressed or consisting of some long setae, fused below, hidden amongst the copious rust-coloured tomentum, deciduous; lamina narrowly oblanceolate, up to 7 cm. long and 9 mm. broad, bearing knob- shaped tentacles only; the lower surface copiously hairy. Inflorescence axillary, scape leafless, up to 25 cm. long, 6-12 flowered, the secund flowers close together on short pedicelsCalyx-lobes narrow-ovate, 6 mm. Petals broadly obovate, 10-15 mm. long, notched or entire, magenta to reddish purple. Stamens short, filaments dilated above, with the locules divergent at the base. Styles divided, long, spreading, the stigmatic apices entire or shortly divided, somewhat swollen. Capsule ovoid; seeds fusiform, 0. 5 mm. long, winged apically. Fig. 28:12
Recorded from the Cape Peninsula and vicinity, eastwards to Hermanus, on hill slopes in sheltered places. Not common. Flowering September-November.
CAPE.-Caledon : Zwartberg, Galpin 4031; MacOwan 728 (BOL).
Hermanus : Hermanus, Baker 1690. Peninsula : Smitswinkel Bay, Marloth 338;
Devil's Peak, Bolus 4001 (BOL); Klawer Valley, Salter 7835; Table Mountain,
Nursery Ravine, Marloth 11987; Bolus 4001. Somerset West : Sneeuwkop,
Esterhuysen 8250. Stellenbosch : Viljoen's Pass, beyond Grabouw, Hutchinson
1078; Kogelberg Reserve, Grobler sub STE 25258; Jonkershoek, Jakkalsvlie,
Taylor 5479; French Hoek, Schlechter 9358. Swellendam : hills N. of Elandspad
farm, Pillans 9405 (BOL). Wellington : Du Toit's kloof, Esterhuysen 26463.
13. Drosera ramentacea
13. Drosera ramentacea Burch. ex DC., Prodr. 1 : 318 (1824); Planch. in Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3, 9 : 197 (1848); Sond. in F.C. 1 : 77 (1860), pro parte; Diels in Pflanzenr. 4, 112 : 99 (1906), pro parte; Hamet in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 54 : 18 (1907), pro parte; Salter in Fl. Cape Penins. 427 (1950). Type : Cape, Caledon district, Zoetemelksvallei, Burchell 7692 (K, holo.; Pre!; G-DC!).
Caulescent with the woody stem decumbent, the upper younger part erect, up to 50 cm. long. Roots not seen. Stems densely covered with the old persistent, reflexed leaves and stipules. Leaves closely imbricate; petiole up to 5 cm. long, rigid, flattened, with the some long scattered rust brown hairs, erect at first later reflexed from the base; stipules entire below, c. 7 mm. long, above splitting into 3 acute, subulate teeth, the central widest, membranous, ferruginous, appressed to the stem; lamina narrowly lanceloate, up to 4 cm. long and 8 mm. broad, the margins densely covered with long, filiform tentacles bearing Knob-shaped glands, the centrally placed ones very short, with some scattered long hairs. Inflorescence axillary, near the apex of the stem, up to 25 cm.; scape leafless, forked or branched above, pedicels c. 5 mm; flowers up to 30. Calyx-lobes c. 6 mm. Petals obovate-cuneate, up to 15 mm. long, magenta. Stamens short, with the locules divergent between the rhomboidal connective. Styles forked from the base, the stigmatic arms distended apically and sometimes splitting. Capsule oblong in outline; seeds fusiform, brownish, 0.4 mm. long with a beaded pattern. Fig. 28:13
South-western Cape, mainly on and near the Peninsula, to Worcester in the north and Caledon in the east, in the fynbos vegetation, rather rare. Flowering December.
CAPE-Caledon : Baviaanskloof, Genadendal, Bolus s.n. Peninsula : Constantia Berg, Salter 7956; 2917 (BOL). Stellenbosch : Viljoen's Pass Salter 7128 (BOL); French Hoek, Van Wyk sub TRV 31853.
Worcester : Du Toit's Kloof, Tyson s.n.; Onklaarberg, 32 kilometres S. of Worcester, Marloth fil. 90.
The type specimen in the De Candolle Herbarium consists of a few
small fragments but on the sheet at Kew there is ample material. A part of
this was given to the National Herbarium, Pretoria.
14. Drosera capensis
14. Drosera capensis L., Sp. Pl. 282 (1753); Sond. in F.C. 1 : 76 (1860); Hook. in Bot. Mag. t.6583 (1881); Diels in Pflanzenr. 4, 112 : 100 (1906); Salter in Fl. Cape Penins. 427 (1950). Hutch., Fam. Fl. Pl. Dicot. ed. 2 : 467, t.307 (1959). Type : Cape : Thunberg (LINN 398.4, holo.; PRE, photo.).
Fairly robust plants with well developed roots. Stems short, woody, rhizomatous below. Leaves congested, the young leaves erect, the old ones spreading; petiole about as long as the lamina, flattened, glabrescent; stipules ovate, c. 1 cm. long, brown, lamina linear, up to 15 cm. long, 4 mm. broad, apex truncate to obtuse, tentacles of the knob-shaped type only, forming a dense fringe along the margin, fewer and shorter in the center; lower surface smooth, glabrous. Inflorescence with the leafless, axillary scape curved outwards below, about 25 cm. long, firm, bearing some small broad-based setae beside the glandular pubescence; pedicels up to 8 mm. long, ascending; flowers 15-30, secund, close together. Calyx-lobes c.5 mm long, sparsely setose. Petals broadly obovate, up to 15 mm. long, pink to reddish purple or mauve. Stamens short with a rhomboid connective, the locules diverging below. Styles divided from the base, stigma epical, swollen. Capsule oblong, 4 mm; seeds fusiform, 0.8 mm. long with the testa beaded-papillate, with an oblong pale extension of the testa at the apex, the basal extension small. Fig. 28:14
Fairly common in the south-western Cape, in marshes or fynbos. Flowering December-January.
CAPE.- Bredasdrop: Brandfontein, Smith 5059. Caledon: Riviera, swampy shore above lagoon, Marloth 13014; Elim, Frowein 1006; Esterhuysen 4452; Houwhoek, Schlechter 7415. Ceres: Ceres Rogers 17566; Thode A2238. Clanwilliam: Ceres Road, 32 kilometres from Citrusdal, in riverbed, Hardy 1929; Verloren Vlei, Pillans 7867 (BOL). Paarl: Paarl, Grant 2308. Peninsula: Modderdam, Salter 7872; Table Mountain, Kasteelpoort, Marloth 10; Diep River near Plumstead, Marloth 7376. Riversdale: alpine bogs above Novo, Muir 2537; Corente River, Muir 20, Stellenbosch: French Hoek Pass, Thode A2196; Jonkershoek, Jakkalsvlei, Taylor 5610; Viljoens Pass, Strey 2971. Swellendam: Tradouw Pass N. of Swellendam, Schlechter 2079. Tulbagh : Tulbagh kloof, Zeyher 54. Uniondale: Haarlem, near river at railway bridge, Fourcade 2957. Wellington: Bainskloof, Long 1125.
This species, together with D. cistiflora, appears on tab. 75 in
Burman's book Rar. Afric. Plant. (1738), under the phrase name D. foliis
ad radicem longissimis floribus spicatis. These two species were illustrated
and described from the Cape. The species is still cultivated in the glass-
houses of European botanic gardens as a curiosity or for research.
15. Drosera glabripes
15. Drosera glabripes (Harv.) Stein in Gartenflora 35 : 657 (1886); Hamet in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 54 : 56 (1907), or on p. 19 of the reprint; as "D. glabripes (Harv.) Salter" in J.S. Afr. Bot. 5 : 157 (1939); Fl. Cape Penins. 427 (1950). Type: Cape, Table Mountain, Harvey (K, holo.!; PRE, photo.).
D. ramentacea Burch. ex DC. var. glabripes Harv. ex Planch. in Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3, 9 : 198 (1848); Harv., Thes. Cap. 17, t.26 (1859); Sond. in F.C. 1 : 77 (1860). D. ramentacea sensu Diels in Pflanzenr. 4, 112 : 99 (1906).
Caulescent woody perennials (roots absent from herbarium collections). Stem decumbent, only the upper, younger part erect, densely covered with the old reflexed, hard petioles and stipules. Leaves closely imbricate, spreading; petioles 2-2.5 cm. long, firm. strigose inside the concave lower side; stipules large, 1 cm., orange brown, entire at the base, cleft above into 5-7 long bristles; lamina obovate, up to 1 cm. long and 5 mm. broad, with the long, knob- shaped tentacles densely arranged along the margin; lower surface strigose with the hairs attached laterally near one side, parallel with the epidermis. Inflorescences 1-2, appearing near the apex, up to 10 cm. long, scape leafless, wiry, somewhat flexuose, pedicels up to 7 mm. long; flowers 6-12, secund. Calyx-lobes ovate, acute 5 mm. long. Petals broadly obovate, cuneate, 11 mm. long, reddish purple. Stamens short with the connective rhomboidal. Styles bifurcate, stigmatic apex shortly flabellate-multifid. Capsule depressed-globose; seeds fusiform, 1.5 mm. long, with a broad foot and a tapered apiculus, papillate-beaded. Fig. 28:15
South-western Cape from the Peninsula to Bredasdrop; mainly montane, at fairly high altitudes, in areas often envelopedn cloud. Flowering December-January.
CAPE.- Bredasdrop: Bredasdrop, Galpin 11197; 11301; Brandfontein,
slope of Zoetanysberg, near Wolwekloof, Smith 5019. Caledon: Kogelberg
Reserve, Grobler 011. Hermanus: Vogelgat, Schlechter 9513; Hermanus, Rogers
26538. Peninsula: Table Mountain, Schlechter 269; Klawer Valley, Salter 7942.
16. Drosera madagascariensis
16. Drosera madagascariensis DC., Prodr. 1 : 318 (1824); Diels in Pflanzenr. 4, 112 : 98 (1906); Burtt Davy, Fl. Trans. 1 : 146 (1926); Hutch. & Dalz., F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 1 : 120, fig. 42 (1954); Laundon F.T.E.A. Droseraceae; 5 (1959). Type: Malagasy Republic, Lambert 1819 (G-DC, holo.?).
-var. major Burtt Davy, Fl. Trans. 1 : 146 (1926). Type: Transvaal, Lydenburg, O'Neill's farm, Wilms 33 (K, holo.!; PRE, photo.). D. curvipes Planch. in Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3, 9 : 196 (1848). Type : Transvaal, Magaliesberg, Burke & Zeyher (K, holo.!; S!; TCD; PRE, photo.). D. ramentacea sensu Oliv. in F.T.A. 2 : 403 (1871); -var. curvipes (Planch.) Sond. in F.C. 1 : 78 (1860).
Plants caulescent, half decumbent, occasionally stems suppressed. Roots poorly developed , 1-2, swollen. Stems thin, up to 25 cm. long, covered with old leaf remains. Leaves alternate on the stems, occasionally clustered; petiole c.3 cm. erect, reflexed with age, pilose; stipules 8 mm., membranous, ferruginous, entire, lacerated apically; lamina obovate to spathulate, 10-15 mm. long 7 mm. broad, bearing only the knob-shaped tentacles; lower surface glabrous. Inflorescence axillary, near the apex of the stem, scape hooked below, 20-40 cm. long, wiry, glabrous, rhachis glandular-pubescent; pedicels 1-3 mm., flowers 4-12, secund, small. Calyx-lobes narrow, 4 mm. long, with a few scattered setae. Petals obovate, c. 8 mm. long, pink. Stamens short, with the connective slightly swollen. Styles forked near the base, stigmatic apices clavate to somewhat bilobed. Capsule oblong; seeds fusiform with the elongated testa forming a foot and an apiculus, 0.6 mm., papillate-beaded. Fig. 28:16
Widespread in the warmer parts of the Transvaal and Natal to Pondoland; throughout tropical Africa and the Malagasy Republic. A swamp species. Flowering during the summer months.
NATAL.-Hlabisa : east of Mtubatuba, Michelmore 6; west of Charter's Creek, Ward 2923. Port Shepstone : between Port Edward and Izingolweni road, Huntley 778; Uvongo, Strey 6173. Ubombo : Ingwavuma, Lake Sibayi, Vahrmeijer 1065.
SWAZILAND.-Mbabane : between Oshoek and Dalriach, Bolus 11877; Forbes Reef, Compton 30503. TRANSVAAL.-Barberton : Umlomati Valley, Galpin 1283. Belfast, Burtt Davy 1311. Bronkhorstspruit : Premier Mine area on road to Witnek, Repton 1323. Heidelberg : Heidelberg, Leendertz 1064. Johannesburg, Zoo Lake, Young s.n. Letaba : Woodbush, Pott 4609. Lydenburg : Zwagershoek, 18 kilometres S. of Lydenburg, Obermeyer 167. Nylstroom : Palala River, Breyer sub TRV 17800; Geelhoutkop, Van der Merwe 313. Rustenburg : marsh at the foot of Magaliesberg, Rustenburg, Pegler s.n. Witbank Station, Gilfillan 7185.
At G-DC there is only one sheet of D. madagascariensis; it is
labelled "Lambert 1819". Diels quotes Lyall 123 as the holotype but he does
not state where it is preserved. It is not at Geneva according to information
received from Prof. Dr. J. Miège. Laundon also states that the type is
preserved at G-DC but that collector and locality are unknown.
17. Drosera regia
17. Drosera regia Stephens in Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr. 13 : 309 (1926); Flow. Pl. S. Afr. 7 : t.243 (1926). Type: Cape Wellington, mountains above Bainskloof, Slanghoek Peak, head of Witte River Valley, Stephens s.n. (BOL, holo.!; K!).
Fairly large herbs forming a short woody rhizome and long, woody roots. Leaves apetiolate, exstipulate, with circinnate vernation; lamina linear, up to 40 cm. long and 12 mm. broad, tapering gradually to a filiform point, tentacles long, knob-shaped, densely fringing the margin; midrib sulcate above, raised below; lower surface glabrous. Inflorescence with the cyme branched, scape up to 40 cm. long, glabrous, terete, bracts small, bearing some reduced tentacles, pedicels up to 15 mm. long, covered with reduced tentacles; flowers fairly large. Calyx-lobes 13 mm. long, densely covered with reduced tentacles, those on the margin fairly long-stipitate. Petals obovate, c. 2.5 cm. long, old rose. Stamens with the terete filaments 15 mm. long, connective not dilated, anthers hastate below, apiculate above. Styles entire, 13 mm. long, narrowly funnel-shaped above with the stigmatic area glandular-fimbriate. Capsule oblong, 8 mm. seed fusiform-falcate, 1 mm., reticulate, apiculate. Fig. 28:17
Known only from the type locality, near Bainskloof in the Cape. Flowering January.
CAPE - Worcester : mountains above Bainskloof, Witte River Valley, Stokoe 1610; Stephens 2001 (BOL); Primos sub Marloth 6677; Slanghoek Mountains, Esterhuysen 8648 (BOL).
A handsome species not closely related to any of the South African
species nor does it fit into any of the sections Diels constituted for the
genus. Unusual characters are its woody rhizome, circinnate vernation and
18. Drosera indica
18. Drosera indica L., Sp. Pl. 282 (1753); Oliv. in F.T.A. 2 : 402 (1871); Hiern, Cat. Welw. Afr. Pl. 1 : 330 (1896); Diels in Pflanzenr. 4, 112 : 77, fig. 29 (1906); Taton in F.C.B. 2 : 551(1951); Van Steenis in Fl. Males. 1, 4 : 379, fig. 1, 7 (1953); Hutch. & Dalz., F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 1 : 122 (1954); Laundon in F.T.E.A. Droseraceae: 2, fig. 1, 11 (1959). Type: "India" (actually Ceylon) a drawing in Herb. Hermann 5 : t.227 (BM).
Slender annual, delicate, caulescent herbs forming a few roots. Stems thin, erect or matted. Leaves cauline apetiolate, exstipulate, with circinnate vernation, patent, erect, reflexed with age; lamina linear to filiform, 2-10 cm. long, 0.5-3 mm. broad, apex long acuminate, margins densely studded with long tentacles bearing knob-shaped glands, these absent near the base. Inflorescences several to a stem, axillary, patent-recurved, with 3-20 flowers on upper side, scape short, rhachis elongating during flowering and fruiting, up to 15 cm. long; bracts appressed to the rhachis, small; pedicels up to 2 cm. in fruit; flowers small. Calyx-lobes 2.5 mm. long. Petals cuneate-obovate c. 6 mm. long, pink to mauve. Stamens with thin filiform filaments. Styles divided from the base, with dilated, erect, stigmatic apices. Capsule broadly oblong, 2 mm. in diameter; seeds globose- ellipsoid, 0.4 mm., coarsely reticulate, black, apiculate. Fig. 28:18
Recorded only once from the Kruger National Park and once from northern South Western Africa. Widespread and often common in tropical Africa, the Malagasy Republic, Asia and Australia. Found in low-lying swamps or in seasonal bogs; at times becoming a weed in disturbed wet ground. Flowering during the summer months.
TRANSVAAL.- White River : Kruger National Park, Pretoriuskop, in a small muddy pan east of camp, Van der Schijff 2129.
S.W.A.- Ovamboland : De Winter & Giess 6964 (M).